How To Walk The Talk and Unlock Your True Potential, mm. -> Trening & Kosthold; Verdt å lese, Utgave 35

Utgave 35 – I denne utgaven:
– How To Walk The Talk and Unlock Your True Potential (av Martin Berkhan)
– Rage against the machine (av Eirik Sandvik)
– Veiing og kroppskomposisjon (av Lyle McDonald)
Så du vil bli en personlig trener? (video)
– Fokus og rutine er viktig (av Eirik Sandvik)
– Aspartame…an Undeserved Bad Reputation, Part 4 (av James Krieger)
– Gjør sukker deg sulten? (av James Krieger)

“Absorb what is usefull, discard what is useless, and add what is uniquely your own.”
– Bruce Lee

Sigmund Freud

How To Walk The Talk and Unlock Your True Potential: En flott artikkel fra Martin Berkhan, spesielt beregnet for personlige trenere, kostholdsveiledere og andre som med mye kunnskap om trening og kosthold. Martin kommer her med sin teori om hvorfor personlige trenere og kostholdsveiledere ofte ikke følger sine egne råd, og hva de kan gjøre med det.

Jeg fant denne artikkelen veldig interessant og verdifull for meg personlig 🙂

Rage against the machine:Poenget er følgende. Hvorfor isolere noe som ALDRI fungerer isolert i naturen?” – En flott artikkel av Eirik Sandvik på iform.no.

Baderomsvekt

Veiing og kroppskomposisjon: I denne ‘spørsmål og svar’ artikkelen forklarer Lyle McDonald på en god måte hvorfor badevekta gjør en dårlig jobb i vise kortsiktige endringer i kroppskomposjosjonen din – endringer i vekt trenger ikke å komme fra endringer i mengden kroppsfett.

Så du vil bli en personlig trener? Morsom video om holdningen til mange personlige trenere..

Fokus og rutine er viktig: Eirik Sandvik har et godt poeng i denne artikkelen – det er utrolig viktig å ha en fast rutine før alle løft, for å ha topp fokus under trening og god teknikk hver eneste repetisjon.

Aspartame…an Undeserved Bad Reputation, Part 4: The Deception of Anti-Aspartame Groups: Den fjerde utvaven av James Krieger artikkelserie om aspartam er nå postet. Artikkelen krever et 8 $/mnd medlemskap hos http://weightology.net – som jeg så absolutt kan anbefale om du er interessert i ernæring og forskning.

Coca-Cola. Foto: Summi

Her er mitt sammendrag av denne artikkelen (se også de tidligere artiklene);

Dr. Robert Walto har presentert sin egenforskede analyse (ikke noen formell studie) av forskningen på aspartam, og han skriver at 100 % av studiene som var industrifinansiert ikke fant noen problemer med aspartam, mens 92 % av de som ikke var støttet av industrien fant problemer med aspartam, men det er en rekke store limitasjoner i ‘studiene’ Walto refererer til her;

1 did not involve aspartame and used abuse doses of glutamic acid in infant mice.

16 were letters to the editor.

5 did not identify any adverse effect of oral aspartame.

1 used abuse doses of MSG, not aspartame.

1 study didn’t appear to exist.

1 was a review paper looking at other studies using abuse doses.

9 were reviews or opinion papers.

7 used an abuse dose of aspartame.

5 were case reports.

4 were high dose in vitro (in a test tube) studies not reflecting how aspartame is metabolized in the body.

2 were not related to aspartame safety.

1 was an analysis of consumer complaints and not a controlled study.

3 did not involve aspartame.

12 were book chapters.

2 were repeats of a paper already mentioned.

2 were presented as hypotheses, not studies.

1 was a survey.

1 was a terribly designed, now debunked epidemiological study.

1 was a now debunked study on formaldehyde adducts.

Industrifinansiert forskning kan absolutt ha god verdi, finansiering betyr ikke automatisk at en studie er verdiløs, det er kvaliteten av studien som har noe å si. Det er også viktig å påpeke at industrifinansierte studier ofte er pålagt av loven – det er produsentens ansvar å bevise at et tilsetningsstoff er trygt (notater: funded research, finansiering).

Statistisk bedrag: klagene relatert til aspartam er ekstremt små i forhold til det ekstremt store forbruker.

– Det er ingen statistiske bevis for en korrelasjon mellom aspartam og multippel sklerose/lupus/multiple Sclerosis (24).

H. J. Roberts siteres ofte av anti-aspartam grupper, men han er ikke en virkelig ‘forsker’, de fleste siteringer er kun brev til forfatterne av studier, og han har aldri publisert noe originell forskning – han er en forfatter.

Nancy Markle siteres også ofte av anti-aspartam grupper, men hun er ingen faktisk person – hun heter Betty Martini, hun er ikke en fysiker, men har kun en ‘honorary Doctor of Humanities degree’, og sier ikke hvor denne utdannelsen kommer fra.

Konspirasjonsteorier/Conspiracy Theories: Jo flere personer som er potensielt involvert i en konspirasjonsteori, jo lavere er sjansen for at det er en konspirasjon, enkel matematikk tilsier at enorme konspirasjonsteorier er ekstremt usannsynlige.

* Referanser:
18) Krieger, J.W., et al.  Chronic glutamine supplementation increases nasal but not salivary IgA during 9 days of interval training.  J Appl Physiol.  97:585-591, 2004.

19) Lexchin, J., et al.  Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review.  BMJ. 326(7400):1167-1170, 2003.

20) Roberts, H.J.  Aspartame and brain cancer.  Lancet.  349(9058):1105, 1997.

21) Spiers, P.A., et al.  Aspartame: neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic evaluation of acute and chronic effects.  Am J Clin Nutr.  68(3):531-537, 199

22) Tollefson, L.  Monitoring adverse reactions to food additives in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.  Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.  8(4):438-446, 1988.

23) Trocho, C., et al.  Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in vivo.  Life Sci. 63(5):337-349, 1998.

24) Ellen Whipple Guthrie, Pharm.D. Examining the Safety of Aspartame. MSFfacts.org.

Gjør sukker deg sulten? Nok en flott artikkel fra James Krieger, også denne krever dog abonnement. Her er mine notater fra artikkelen;

Forskningen på sukker og sultfølelse er mikset, noe forskning indikerer at sukker øker appetitt, mens andre viser at det minsker appetitt. Forskning på humør er likt; noen studier finner en effekt fra sukker på humør, mens andre ikke gjør det. Selv konseptet om sukker-sug/søtsug er satt spørsmålstegn ved.

– En meget god blind studie fra januar 2007 (4) undersøkte sukker’s effekt på sultfølelse og metthet ved å sammenligne kaloriinntak og næringsinntak i forskjellige grupper som enten fikk en aspartam-basert drikke eller en sukrose-basert drikke. Forskningen viser at personene som fikk den sukrose-baserte drikken endte opp med et høyere kaloriinntak enn de som fikk den aspartam-baserte drikken, tilsvarende halvparten av energiinnholdet i drikken, hvilket indikerer at den sukrose-baserte drikken ga økt metthetsfølelse sammenlignet med aspartam, men til mindre grad enn andre matvarer. Så; en sukkerholdig drikke ble funnet å være delvis mettende. Det var ingen betydelige forskjeller i humør eller tretthet mellom gruppene. Limitasjoner til studier inkluderer;

— Forskjellige proteininntak, men det var også noe forskerne ønsket å finne ut; hvordan næringsinntaket i resten av dietten blir endret som resultat av den sukkerholdige drikken.

— Studien var på normalvektige kvinner, så det trenger ikke være relevant for overvektige, men forskerne postet nylig en lignende studie på overvektige kvinner (5).

— Studien belaget seg også på selvrapportering av matinntak, men det er ingen grunn til å dro at en unøyaktighet her vil variere mellom gruppene.

— Studien så på sukkerholdig drikke, og forteller oss ikke hva som skjer med sukerholdig fast føde.

Konklusjon fra James Krieger: “Overall, these data do suggest that increasing your sucrose intake in the form of sugary beverages can contribute to weight gain because your body doesn’t fully compensate for the increased intake.  It is also clear that the partial compensation is due to physiological factors rather than psychological factors.  This study does not support the idea that sugar stimulates appetite or carbohydrate cravings, or that it affects mood.

* Referanser: James Krieger.

1) Blundell, J.E., et al.  Carbohydrates and human appetite.  Am J Clin Nutr.  59(suppl):728S-734S, 1994.

2) Lieberman, H.R., et al.  Changes in mood after carbohydrate consumption among obese individuals.  Am J Clin Nutr.  44(6):772-778, 1986.

3) Pivonka, E.E., and Grunewald, K.K.  Aspartame- or sugar-sweetened beverages: effects on mood in young women.  J Am Diet Assoc.  90(2):250-254, 1990.

4) Reid, M., et al.  Long-term dietary compensation for added sugar: effects of supplementary sucrose drinks over a 4-week period.  Br J Nutr. 97(1):193-203, 2007.

5) Reid, M., et al.  Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.  Appetite.  55(1):130-136, 2010.

6) Toornvliet, A.C., et al.  Psychological and metabolic responses of carbohydrate craving obese patients to carbohydrate, fat and protein-rich meals.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.  21(10):860-864, 1997.

Sukker

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