Utgave 87 – I denne utgaven:
– Is Food Addiction Real? (av James Krieger, forskning)
– Does Exercise Affect NEAT, part 1 & 2 (av James Krieger, forskning)
– Why It’s So Easy To Regain Weight, Part 4 (av James Krieger, forskning)
– What Does It Take To Successfully Maintain Weight? Part 1, Part 2 (av James Krieger, forskning)
– Best of Leangains Meals: Part 1 (av Martin Berkhan)
«If you don’t like how things are, change it! You’re not a tree.»
– Jim Rohn
Is Food Addiction Real? En flott artikkel av James Krieger som ‘mat avhengighet’.
– «Article Summary: A recent study found evidence of food addiction in 25% of the obese subjects examined.
– Points of Interest:
— Studies have demonstrated food addiction in animals, but there is not as much research supporting it in humans.
— Obese individuals show reduced dopamine receptor deficiency in their brains, similar to that of drug addicts. This is evidence of reward deficiency syndrome.
— Among the food addicts, a significantly greater proportion was diagnosed with binge eating disorder and had a higher prevalence of severe depression.
— The food addicts showed more signs of ADHD.
— Food addicts reported more impulsive traits, more binge eating, more hedonic eating, and more emotionally driven eating. They also reported greater food cravings and snacking on sweets.
— «Anecdotally, when I worked for a weight management clinic, our clients reported withdrawal-like symptoms during the first week of the program when we had them remove sugary foods from their diets.»
— «…while food addiction may be a contributing factor to obesity in some people, it is certainly not the main driver of the spread of obesity across the world.»»
* Referanser: James Krieger: Is Food Addiction Real?
1) Davis, C., et al. Evidence that ‘food addiction’ is a valid phenotype of obesity. Appetite. 57(3):711-717, 2011.
2) Avena, N.M., and B.G. Hoebel. A diet promoting sugar dependency causes behavioral cross-sensitization to a low dose of amphetamine. Neuroscience. 122(1):17-20, 2003.
3) Davis, C., and J.C. Carter. Compulsive overeating as an addiction disorder. A review of theory and evidence. Appetite. 53(1):1-8, 2009.
4) Erlanson-Albertsson, C. How palatable food disrupts appetite regulation. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 97(2):61-73, 2005.
5) Gearhardt, A.N., et al. Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Appetite. 52(2):430-436, 2009.
6) Gilhooly, C.H., et al. Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during 6 months of dietary energy restriction. Int J Obes (Lond). 31(12):1849-1858, 2007.
7) Kessler, R.C., et al. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 163(4):716-723, 2006.
8) la Fleur, S.E., et al. A reciprocal interaction between food-motivated behavior and diet-induced obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 31(8):1286-1294, 2007.
9) Robertson, D.N., and R.L. Palmer. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating in a British community sample of women with a history of obesity. Int J Eat Disord. 22(3):323-327, 1997.
10) Volkow, N.D., et al. Association of dopamine transporter reduction with pyschomotor impairment in methamphetamine abusers. Am J Psychiatry. 158(3):377-382, 2001.
11) Wang, G.J., et al. Brain dopamine and obesity. Lancet. 357(9253):354-357, 2001.
Does Exercise Affect NEAT? + Part 2 En flott artikkel av James Krieger om hvilken effekt trening kan ha på annen fysisk aktivitet non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). Noen reduserer til aktivitet uten om trening til en slik grad at det gjør opp for selve treningen, derfor vil ikke alle forbrenne mer selv om de trener. (notater: Forbrenning, trening, slanking, trene for å slanke seg.)
– «Article Summary: A recent study showed that a structured exercise program resulted in a decrease in non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT, also known as spontaneous physical activity) in some women.
– Points of Interest:
— Thirty four postmenopausal women engaged in a 13-week brisk walking program, exercising 4 days per week for 40-50 minutes.
— The women experienced improvements in numerous variables, including weight and aerobic fitness.
— Some of the women showed an increase in physical activity energy expenditure, while other women showed a decrease that canceled out the benefits of the exercise.
— The women who had an increase in physical activity energy expenditure showed an improvement in blood cholesterol, while the women who had a decrease did not.
— «The other subgroup showed the decreases in these variables, indicating that they compensated for the exercise by reducing their NEAT on training days, and even more on non-training days.»
— «This essentially cancels out the benefit of the exercise, which also explains why some people struggle to lose weight despite engaging in regular exercise.»
— «Anecdotally, I have seen some individuals take the attitude of, ‘I did my exercise, so I can relax the rest of the day.’ »
— «…exercise is nothing more than a tool to increase your daily energy expenditure.»»
– PART 2:
– «Article Summary: A study on overweight and obese men found no detrimental effect of a single exercise session on non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT, also known as spontaneous physical activity). There were also no differences between moderate intensity and high intensity walking on NEAT levels. A main limitation to the study is that the researchers only looked at the effects of a single exercise session, rather than a chronic exercise program over an extended period of time.
– Points of Interest:
— 16 overweight and obese men engaged in a high intensity and moderate intensity walking session, separated by a week.
— NEAT was measured 3 days before, the day of, and 3 days after each exercise session.
— There were no differences in NEAT across time, and no differences between the high and moderate intensity sessions, although there was an increase in NEAT on day 7 in the high intensity exercise condition.
— While the researchers concluded that exercise intensity influenced NEAT, limitations in the data analysis make this conclusion questionable.
— «The delayed increase in NEAT on day 7 is more likely a random event.»
— «The previous study involved a 13-week exercise program, while this study only looked at a single exercise session; it is possible that the effects of exercise on NEAT may not manifest themselves until over an extended period of time.»
— «All that matters is that you accumulate activity.»»
* Referanser: James Krieger: Does Exercise Affect NEAT? Part 2.
1) Di Blasio, A., et al. Walking training in postmenopause: effects on both spontaneous physical activity and training-induced body adaptations. Menopause. 19(1) 2011 Epub ahead of print.
1) Alahmadi, M.A., et al. Exercise intensity influences nonexercise activity thermogenesis in overweight and obese adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 43(4):624-631, 2011.
Why It’s So Easy To Regain Weight, Part 4: Nok en flott artikkel av James Krieger om et meget interessant emne; hvorfor det er så vanskelig å beholde et vekttap. Kort oppsummert; dårlig nytt for alle som er eller har vært overvektige. (beholde vekttap, gå opp i vekt igjen, slanking, diett).
– «Article Summary: A recent study showed that, when someone loses weight and keeps it off for a year, there are long-term changes in hormones that regulate appetite and energy expenditure. These changes can favor weight regain.
– Points of Interest:
— 34 subjects lost 14% of their body weight after 10 weeks
— They kept most of the weight off for a year, having lost 8.2% of their weight.
— Leptin levels decreased by 64.5% during weight loss, and was still 35.5% below baseline after 1 year.
— Ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates hunger, was significantly elevated after 1 year.
— PYY, amylin, CCK, GLP-1, and insulin, which are all hormones that suppress appetite, were lower after 1 year.
— Ratings of hunger and appetite were increased after 1 year.
— «Because these changes are still present even if the weight loss is maintained, it indicates that there is still a drive of your body to try to gain your weight back.»
— «If someone drops from 200 pounds to 150 pounds, that person can never eat or behave like someone who has always been 150 pounds.»»
* Referanser: James Krieger: Why It’s So Easy To Regain Weight, Part 4.
1) Sumithran, P., et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. New Engl J Med. 365(17):1597-1604, 2011.
2) Batterham, R.L., et al. Pancreatic polypeptide reduces appetite and food intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 88(8):3989-3992, 2003.
What Does It Take To Successfully Maintain Weight? Part 1, Part 2: (notater: slanking, vektreduksjon, beholde vektta, regain weight, beholde vekttap, suksessfulle slankere, hva gjør de som lykkes med slanking?)
– «Article Summary: A series of interviews with women who had successfully lost weight and kept it off revealed important information about the attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of people who are able to keep their weight off.
– Points of Interest:
— Researchers found four major themes when looking at the results of the interviews: motivations to lose weight, approach taken to lose and maintain weight, support, and difficulties associated with weight maintenance.
— The women realized that, to be successful over the long term, they had to focus on long-term lifestyle change rather than short-term solutions.
— The women made heavy use of self-monitoring practices, such as food diaries and regular weighing.
— In regards to the strategies they used, the women were focused on a balanced healthy eating approach including regular meals.
— Almost all of the women had increased their activity levels and they felt that this was really important in supporting their weight loss and weight maintenance.»
– DEL 2:
– «Points of Interest:
— Support was extremely important to the subjects.
— The women reported one key difference between the phase of losing weight and maintaining weight, and that was the loss of positive reinforcement during the weight maintenance phase.
— The women dealt with this loss of positive reinforcement by creating new roles and goals.
— The women also frequently alluded to the presence of a saboteur among friends or family members.
— «…there is much more to long term weight management than simply consuming the “right” foods.»
— «This is where some of the supposed “gurus” out there fail as they focus on only a small part of the whole problem.»
— «…more extremist approaches, like low-carb dieting, can fail in the long run because of their overly restrictive natures.»
— «It also flies in the face of the claims of some individuals (particularly those in the low-carb community) that claim that self-monitoring activities like calorie counting are worthless or even counterproductive.»»
* Referanser: James Krieger: What Does It Take To Successfully Maintain Weight? Part 1, Part 2.
1) Hindle, L., and C. Carpenter. An exploration of the experiences and perceptions of people who have maintained weight loss. J Hum Nutr Diet. 24(4):342-350, 2011
1) Hindle, L., and C. Carpenter. An exploration of the experiences and perceptions of people who have maintained weight loss. J Hum Nutr Diet. 24(4):342-350, 2011
2) Butryn, M.L., et al. Consistent self-monitoring of weight: a key component of successful weight loss maintenance. Obesity. 15(12):3091-3096, 2007.
3) Wing, R.R., and S. Phelan. Long-term weight loss maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr. 82(1 Suppl):222S-225S, 2005.
Best of Leangains Meals: Part 1: PDF med Leangains oppskrifter! 🙂 (oppskrifter, middag, mat)
* Martin Berkhan: Best of Leangains Meals: Part 1.
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