Utgave 78 – I denne utgaven:
– Fuckarounditis (av Martin Berkhan)
– BBC: Coffee may prevent depression, scientists say (BBC, Forskning)
– Food Preservatives…an Undeserved Bad Reputation; Part 1, 2 (av James Krieger, forskning)
– Holding Fat Burners to the Fire, Part 1 (av James Krieger, forskning)
“When faced with two choices, simply toss a coin. It works not because it settles the question for you, but because, in that brief moment when the coin is in the air, you suddenly know what you are hoping for.”
Fuckarounditis: En artig artikkel av Martin Berkhan om alt tullet folk driver med på treningssentere, og hva du må gjøre for å unngå å gå i samme feller.
Coffee may prevent depression, scientists say: Forskning viser en omvendt korrelasjon mellom kaffeinntak (med koffein) og risikoen for depresjon.
“…Those who drank four or more cups a day cut their risk by 20%.
Regular coffee drinkers were more likely to smoke and drink alcohol and were less likely to be involved in church, volunteer or community groups. They were also less likely to be overweight and have high blood pressure or diabetes….”
* Referanser: BBC: Coffee may prevent depression, scientists say.
Lucas M, Mirzaei F, Pan A, Okereke OI, Willett WC, O’Reilly EJ, Koenen K, Ascherio A. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of depression among women. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Sep 26;171(17):1571-8. Pubmed.
Part 1: Benzoates and Sulfites: (notater: Benzoater, Sulfitter)
– “Article Summary: True adverse food reactions are very rare. Benzoates and sulfites, two common food preservatives, are quite safe for the majority of people. A small percentage of people with rhinitis, asthma, or hives may be sensitive to benzoates and may want to limit intake. A small percentage of people may be sensitive to sulfites and will want to limit sulfite intake. A small proportion of asthmatics may also be sensitive to sulfite-induced asthmatic reactions.
– Points of Interest:
— True adverse food reactions can only be confirmed by blinded, placebo-controlled tests.
— Only 0.03% to 0.23% of the population experience true adverse food reactions.
— Generally, no adverse effects are observed in humans consuming benzoates.
— True sulfite sensitivity only occurs in less than 0.05% of the population.
— 5-10% of people with chronic asthma may be sensitive to sulfites.
— “One of the biggest problems to people who are sulfite sensitive is the fact that, in the United States, managers of food service establishments are not required to disclose to consumers if sulfites were used in the preparation.””
Part 2: Nitrates and Nitrites: (notater: Nitrater og Nitritter).
– “Article Summary: The weight of the evidence indicates that nitrates are safe at people’s typical intakes; most nitrate intake comes from vegetables anyway. There is no solid evidence that either nitrates or nitrites cause cancer, and they may actually have some health benefits. The real problem with cured and processed meats are N-nitroso compounds or nitrosamines present in the meats. Intake of cured and processed meats, as well as red meat, should be limited to help reduce your risk, and when you do eat meat, make sure to combine it with fruits and/or vegetables to help reduce nitrosamine formation.
– Points of Interest:
— Nitrates and nitrites are food preservatives that inhibit the growth of bacteria on foods.
— Nitrates are naturally present in vegetables; 85% of the nitrate that humans ingest comes from vegetables.
— The Adequate Daily Intake (ADI) for nitrite is 0.09 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. The ADI for nitrate is 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
— Most adults do not exceed the ADI.
— There is very little evidence that nitrates or nitrites cause cancer.
— N-nitroso compounds, also known as nitrosamines, are found in high concentrations in red, cured, and processed meats.
— There is strong evidence that N-nitroso compounds cause cancer, which explains the association between red and processed meat intake and cancer in epidemiological studies.
— “Further research has shown a dose-dependent effect between red meat and fecal excretion of N-nitroso compounds.””
* Referanser: James Krieger; Del 1, Del 2,
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2) Dalton-Bunnow, M.F. Review of sulfite sensitivity. Am J Hosp Pharm. 42(10):2220-2226, 1985.
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5) Gunnison, A.F., et al. Sulfite hypersensitivity. A critical review. CRC Crit Rev Toxicol. 17(3):185-214, 1987.
6) Kemp, A. Food additives and hyperactivity. British Medical Journal. 336(7654):1144, 2008.
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10) Simon, R.A. Adverse reactions to food additives. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 3(1):62-66, 2003.
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12) Taylor, S.L., et al. Sensitivity to sulfited foods among sulfite-sensitive subjects with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 81(6):1159-1167, 1988.
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14) Wilson, B.G., and S.L Bahna. Adverse reactions to food additives. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 95(6):499-507, 2005.
15) Wuthrich, B. Adverse reactions to food additives. Ann Allergy. 71(4):379-384, 1993.
16) Yang, W.H., and E.C. Purchase. Adverse reactions to sulfites. CMAJ. 133(9):865-867, 880, 1985.
17) Asero, R. Food additive-induced chronic pruritus: further evidence. Clin Exp Dermatol. 30(6):719-720, 2005.
18) Bingham, S.A., et al. Does increased endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the human colon explain the association between red meat and colon cancer? Carcinogenesis. 17(3):515-523, 1996.
19) Cammack, R., et al. Nitrite and nitrosyl compounds in food preservation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1411(2-3):475-488, 1999.
20) Chow, C.K., and C.B. Hong. Dietary vitamin E and selenium and toxicity of nitrite and nitrate. Toxicology. 180(2):195-207, 2002.
21) Cross, A.J., et al. Haem, not protein or inorganic iron, is responsible for endogenous intestinal N-nitrosation arising from red meat. Cancer Res. 63(10):2358-2360, 2003.
22) Dich, J., et al. Dietary intakes of nitrate, nitrite and NDMA in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey. Food Addit Contam. 13(5):541-542, 1996.
23) Duncan, C., et al. Protection against oral and gastrointestinal diseases: importance of dietary nitrate intake, oral nitrate reduction and enterosalivary nitrate circulation. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol. 118(4):939-948, 1997.
24) Ellen, G., et al. Dietary intakes of some essential and non-essential trace elements, nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitrosamines, by Dutch adults: estimated via a 24-hour duplicate portion study. Food Addit Contam. 7(2):207-221, 1990.
25) Forman, D. Are nitrates a significant risk factor in human cancer? Cancer Surv. 8(2):443-458, 1989.
26) Gangolli, S.D., et al. Nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds. Eur J Pharmacol. 292(1):1-38, 1994.
27) Gonzalez, C.A., et al. Nutritional factors and gastric cancer in Spain. Am J Epidemiol. 139(5):466-473, 1994.
28) Grant, D., and W.H. Butler. Chronic toxicity of sodium nitrite in the male F344 rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 27(9):565-571, 1989.
29) Hughes, R., et al. Dose-dependent effect of dietary meat on endogenous colonic N-nitrosation. Carcinogenesis. 22(1):199-202, 2001.
30) Jansson, E.A., et al. Protection from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric ulcers by dietary nitrate. Free Radic Biol Med. 42(4):510-518, 2007.
31) Knekt, P., et al. Risk of colorectal and other gastro-intestinal cancers after exposure to nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds: a follow-up study. Int J Cancer. 80(6):852-856, 1999.
32) Kuroiwa, Y., et al. Enhancement of esophageal carcinogenesis in acid reflux model rats treated with ascorbic acid and sodium nitrite in combination with or without initiation. Cancer Sci. 99(1):7-13, 2008.
33) Larauche, M., et al. Protective effect of dietary nitrate on experimental gastritis in rats. Br J Nutr. 89(6):777-786, 2003.
34) Lin, X.Y., et al. Dietary garlic suppresses DNA adducts caused by N-nitroso compounds. Carcinogenesis. 15(2):349-352, 1994.
35) Lundberg, J.O., et al. Cardioprotective effects of vegetables: is nitrate the answer? Nitric Oxide. 15(4):359-362, 2006.
36) Maekawa, A., et al. Carcinogenicity studies of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate in F-344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 20(1):25-33, 1982.
37) McKnight, G.M., et al. Dietary nitrate in man: friend or foe? Br J Nutr. 81(5):349-358, 1999.
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39) Menard, C., et al. Assessment of dietary exposure of nitrate and nitrite in France. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 25(8):971-988, 2008.
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42) Miyauchi, M., et al. Promoting effects of combined antioxidant and sodium nitrite treatment on forestomach carcinogenesis in rats after initiation with N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Cancer Lett. 178(1):19-24, 2002.
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45) Packer, P.J., et al. The effect of different sources of nitrate exposure on urinary nitrate recovery in humans and its relevance to the methods of estimating nitrate exposure in epidemiological studies. Carcinogenesis. 10(11):1989-1996, 1989.
46) Palli, D., et al. Dietary patterns, nutrient intake and gastric cancer in a high-risk area of Italy. Cancer Causes Control. 12(2):163-172, 2001.
47) Petersson, J., et al. Dietary nitrate increases gastric mucosal blood flow and mucosal defense. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 292(3):G718-724, 2007.
48) Pobel, D., et al. Nitrosamine, nitrate and nitrite in relation to gastric cancer: a case-control study in Marseille, France. Eur J Epidemiol. 11(1):67-73, 1995.
49) Preston-Martin, S., et al. Maternal consumption of cured meats and vitamins in relation to pediatric brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 5(8):599-605, 1996.
50) Rogers, M.A., et al. Consumption of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosodimethylamine and the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 4(1):29-36, 1995.
51) Santarelli, R.L., et al. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence. Nutr Cancer. 60(2):131-144, 2008.
52) Silvester, K.R., et al. Effect of meat and resistant starch on fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds and ammonia from the human large bowel. Nutr Cancer. 29(1):13-23, 1997.
53) Thomson, B.M., et al. Intake and risk assessment of nitrate and nitrite from New Zealand foods and drinking water. Food Addit Contam. 24(2):113-121, 2007.
54) Vermeer, I.T., et al. Effect of ascorbic acid and green tea on endogenous formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopiperidine in humans. Mutat Res. 428(1-2):353-361, 1999.
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56) Ysart, G., et al. Dietary exposures to nitrate in the UK. Food Addit Contam. 16(12):521-532, 1999.
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Holding Fat Burners to the Fire, Part 1: En flott artikkelserie av James Krieger om stimulanter/fettbrennere, og forskningen på dem; (notater: stimulants, vektnedgang, slanking, kosttilskudd, koffein, kaffe).
– “Article Summary: Do fat burning supplements really work? This article reviews some common ones and what the scientific evidence has to say.
– Points of Interest:
— While caffeine boosts metabolism and fat burning, the effect is so small that it would be ineffective for weight loss.
— There is no evidence that L-carnitine is helpful for weight loss.
— Only one study on forskolin has been published on humans. While there was a positive benefit, there are limitations to the research that raise questions. More evidence is needed.
— There is some animal and human research showing a benefit for fucoxanthin, but there are serious questions about this research, and more evidence is needed.
— There is no good evidence that chromium is effective for improving lean mass or decreasing body fat.
— “You would need to drink 4 or more cups of coffee just to burn an extra 10 calories per hour over 3-4 hours.”
— “…before you go jumping to buy some forskolin, keep in mind that no measurements of fat metabolism were reported, and energy expenditure was not different between the forskolin and placebo groups.”
— “At least one of the authors in this paper is working for the company that holds the patents on fucoxanthin.””
* Referanser: James Krieger; del 1.
1) Abidov, M., et al. The effects of Xanthigen in the weight management of obese premenopausal women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and normal liver fat. Diabetes Obes Metab. 12(1):72-81, 2010.
2) Acheson, K.J., et al. Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 33(5):989-997, 1980.
3) Astrup, A., et al. The effect of ephedrine/caffeine mixture on energy expenditure and body composition in obese women. Metabolism. 41(7):686-688, 1992.
4) Dulloo, A.G., et al. Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 49(1):44-50, 1989.
5) Godard, M.P., et al. Body composition and hormonal adaptations associated with forskolin consumption in overweight and obese men. Obes Res. 13(8):1335-1343, 2005.
6) Lukaski, H.C., et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status. Nutrition. 23(3):187-195, 2007.
7) Maeda, H., et al. Fucoxanthin from edible seaweed, Undaria pnnatifida, shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 332(2):392-397, 2005.