Prestér bedre – med riktig kost, Olympiatoppen & Sosial- og helsedirektoratet

Sosial- og helsedirektoratet har i samarbeid med Olympiatoppen utgitt et dokument med kostholdstips for idrettsutøvere. Her er mine notater fra dette dokumentet. Se hele dokumentet her.

Prestér bedre – med riktig kost, Olympiatoppen & Sosial- og helsedirektoratet (Christine Helle):

– Dekk energibehovet: De fleste idrettsutøvere trenger mellom 2500-6000 kcal per dag. Utøvere i utholdenhetsidretter med meget store treningsmengder eller andre som trener flere ganger daglig, kan ha et energibehov på mer enn 25 MJ (6000 kcal) i døgnet.

— Kostholds- undersøkelser viser at de fleste nordmenn får i seg for lite karbohydrat, nok protein og for mye fett i forhold til anbefalingene.

– Spis mye karbohydratrik mat: Velfylte glykogenlagre rekker vanligvis til 1-2 timers trening, avhengig av intensiteten.

— De som trener 1-2 timer daglig, bør innta 5-8 gram karbohydrat pr kg kroppsvekt pr dag.

— De som trener 2-4 timer eller mer daglig, bør innta 8-10 gram karbohydrat pr kg kroppsvekt pr dag.

— Typer karbohydrat: Matvarer som inneholder mye stivelse er den ernæringsmessig beste kilden til karbohydrat. De er nemlig også rike på andre viktige næringsstoffer som vitaminer, mineralstoffer og kostfiber.

– Sørg for nok protein:

— De som trener mye utholdenhet: 1,2-1,6 g protein kg/kroppsvekt/dag.

— De som trener mye styrke: 1,5-1,8 g protein kg/kroppsvekt/dag.

— “Det er vanligvis ikke noe problem å få dekket proteinbehovet med et vanlig norsk kosthold. Selv om du ligger i det øvre sjiktet med hensyn til protein- behov, kan du enkelt få i deg nok protein gjennom en sammensatt kost med daglige innslag av melke- produkter og fisk, fjærfe, kjøtt eller egg. Hvis du utelukker animalsk protein i kosten, anbefales du å søke hjelp hos ernæringsfysiolog for å sikre et tilstrekkelig proteininntak.

– Velg fortrinnsvis umettet fett (inkl. flerumettet fett): Bruk myk margarin og oljer, velg halvfete og magre meieriprodukter, velg magre kjøttprodukter.

– Få i deg tilstrekkelig med vitaminer og mineralstoffer:

— “Idrettsutøvere har stor omsetning av vitaminer, mineralstoffer og antioksidanter som følge av det økte energiforbruket ved trening, og du må passe på å få dekket behovet for disse næringsstoffene i kosten. Når du trener mye, må du spesielt sørge for å få i deg nok B-vitaminer, antioksidanter (vitamin C og E, karoten og selen), jern, kalsium, magnesium og sink.

— “Statens råd for ernæring og fysisk aktivitet anbefaler alle å spise minst 5 porsjoner frukt og grønnsaker om dagen. Bakgrunnen for dette er at et høyt inntak av frukt og grønnsaker kan forebygge kreft og er gunstig i forhold til utvikling av hjerte- karsykdommer, høyt blodtrykk, diabetes med mer. Idrettsutøvere kan med fordel få i seg minst 1 porsjon sitrusfrukt eller juice daglig for å øke inn- taket av vitamin C.“.

– Pass på inntaket av jern og kalsium:

— Jern: Kvinnelige idrettsutøvere er mer utsatt for jernmangel enn menn på grunn av økt jerntap gjennom menstruasjonen.

— “Du kan selv påvirke opptaket av jern fra maten. Vitamin C øker opptaket, og det er derfor lurt å drikke appelsinjuice eller spise sitrusfrukter til korn- og brødmåltidene. Kjøtt, fjærfe og fisk inneholder stoffer som øker opptaket, og er derfor gode påleggsalternativer. Kaffe og te reduserer jernopptaket. Hvis du har dårlig jernstatus, bør du derfor ikke drikke kaffe eller te til måltidene.”

— Tips for å sikre jerntilførselen:

—- Spis fjærfe, kjøtt, innmat eller blåskjell minst tre ganger i uken.

—- Spis grovt brød med minst 50% sammalt mel.

—- Bruk brunost, prim og leverpostei som pålegg.

—- Drikk appelsinjuice til brød- og kornmåltidene.

— Kalsium: “Hvis du utelukker melk og ost fra kostholdet, er det vanskelig å få dekket kalsiumbehovet. Du bør derfor drikke melk eller yoghurt og/eller spise ost daglig. Sardiner, tørket fiken og mandler inneholder også mye kalsium. Andre kilder er grønne bladgrønnsaker og korn.”

– Pass på væskebalansen: Kroppen er ca 60 % vann. Du bør drikke regelmessig, både til og mellom måltidene. Tørstfølelsen er et dårlig mål på væskebalansen – du må drikke før du blir tørst, og drikke mer enn tørsten tilsier når du trener.

“Du kan bruke urinmengde og urinfarge som en indikasjon på om du drikker nok. Du skal føle behov for å tisse når du står opp om morgenen, og du skal tisse flere ganger daglig. Morgenurinen vil som regel være mørkere i fargen, men senere på dagen skal urinen være klar til lys gul i fargen.

Når du trener i høyden og i varmt klima, kan det være lurt å veie seg hver morgen. Et avvik på mer enn 0,5 kg fra en dag til neste betyr at du ikke er i væskebalanse.”

– Variér matvarevalget: Du bør spise matvarer fra de følgende syv matvaregruppene hver dag:

— 1. Brød og kornvarer

— 2. Poteter, pasta og ris

— 3. Grønnsaker

— 4. Frukt og bær

— 5. Fisk, fjærfe, kjøtt og egg

— 6. Melkeprodukter (melk, yoghurt) og ost

— 7. Matfett.

— “De siste årene har det kommet flere kostholdsbøker på markedet som har bidratt til å spre myter om at enkelte matvarer/næringsstoffer ikke skal spises sammen. Sannheten er at måltidene blir best, både smaksmessig og ernæringsmessig, når du blander og kombinerer flere matvarer/næringsstoffer.”

– Måltidene: Spis til rett til – drokost, lunsj og kveldsmat fyller glykogenlagrene – Middag gir stor variasjon i næringsstoffinntaket – spis mellomåltider etter behov.

— Tallerkenmodell (idrettsutøvere)

— 1/4 med fisk, fjærfe, kjøtt eller egg

— 1/4 med grønnsaker eller salat

— 1/2 med poteter, ris eller pasta.

– Innta et karbohydratrikt måltid før trening: Om ikke glykogenlagrene allerede er fulle, bør et måltid med karbohydrater og noe proteiner inntas 2-3 timer før oppvarmingen starter. Når du skal gjennom en langvarig økt eller konkurranse, kan du i tillegg innta litt karbohydrat ca 1 time før start.

– Innta væske og karbohydrat under trening:

— Du skal drikke under all trening som varer mer enn 30 minutter, uansett intensitet og klima. For de fleste vil det passe å drikke 5-10 dl i timen.

— Karbohydratinntaket bør være 30-60 gram hver time, og det skal ha høy glykemisk indeks. Tabellen på side.

Sportsdrikker er ment til å brukes under og rett etter trening eller konkurranse, ikke til måltider eller som tørstedrikke. Overdrevet bruk av sportsdrikke gir et unødvendig stort sukkerinntak, noe som bl.a. kan være uheldig for tannhelsen. Samtidig vil sportsdrikken kunne tilføre så mye energi at du spiser mindre av vanlig mat og dermed går glipp av næringsstoffer som er mer nyttige enn sukker.”

– Spis og drikk rett etter trening:

— “Du skal erstatte væsken du har tapt med et væskeinntak på 150% av tapet. For de fleste tilsvarer dette et væskeinntak på minst 5 dl umiddelbart etter økten, og deretter mindre mengder de neste 2 timene inntil væskebalansen er gjenopprettet.

— “For å sikre optimal glykogenlagring skal du innta 1 – 1,5 gram karbohydrat pr kg kroppsvekt i løpet av den første halvtimen.

— “Du bør derfor innta noe proteinholdig drikke og/eller mat sammen med karbohydratene i løpet av den første halvtimen etter slike treningsøkter.

– Kosttilskudd:

— Sportsprodukter: Karbohydrater og protein. Kan være aktuelle for utøvere som i perioder sliter med dårlig appetitt.

— Kosttilskudd: Vitaminer og mineralstoffer.

— Erogene tilskudd: Kreatin, koffein etc.

— Ikke overdriv bruken av kosttilskudd: “…Store doser av ett eller flere næringsstoffer kan også hemme opptaket av andre næringsstoffer, slik at det oppstår mangler…“.

— Se opp for ulovlige stoffer.

— Ikke la deg lure: “Merk deg at kosttilskudd aldri vil være en snarvei til økt prestasjonsevne. De faktorene som virkelig kan fremme dine idrettsprestasjoner er riktig trening, et optimalt kosthold, god restitusjon, tilstrekkelig med søvn, godt utstyr og en vinnende holdning. Det er dette du bør vektlegge i treningsarbeidet ditt.“.

* Referanser: Prestér bedre – med riktig kost, Olympiatoppen & Sosial- og helsedirektoratet (Christine Helle). Prester bedre.pdf

 

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