Stølhet og Muskelvekst (mini-artikkel)

En flott forskningsanalyse av Brad Schoenfeld og Bret Contreras tar for seg forskningen på Stølhet (Postexercise Muscle Soreness, DOMS) og hvorvidt det er en valid indikator av muskulære adapsjoner som muskelvekst. Les hele teksten her: http://journals.lww.com/nsca-scj/Fulltext/2013/10000/Is_Postexercise_Muscle_Soreness_a_Valid_Indicator.2.aspx

Markløft

Noen utdrag:

– «Although both concentric and eccentric training can induce DOMS (Delayed onset muscle soreness), studies show that lengthening actions have the most profound effect on its manifestation (7). As a general rule, soreness becomes evident about 6–8 hours after an intense exercise bout and peaks at approximately 48 hours postexercise (42).»

- «By definition, severe EIMD decreases force-producing capacity by 50% or more (40). Such functional decrements will necessarily impair an individual’s ability to train at a high level, which in turn would be detrimental to muscle growth. Moreover, although training in the early recovery phase of EIMD does not seem to exacerbate muscle damage, it may interfere with the recuperative process (24,38). Studies indicate that regeneration of muscle tissue in those with severe EIMD can exceed 3 weeks, with full recovery taking up to 47 days when force production deficits reach 70% (47). In extreme cases, EIMD can result in rhabdomyolysis (40), a potentially serious condition that may lead to acute renal failure (61).»

- «When taking all factors into account, it can be postulated that EIMD may enhance hypertrophic adaptations, although this theory is far from conclusive. The hormesis theory states that biological systems’ response to stressors follows an inverted U-shaped curve (44). This is consistent with Selye’s (50) concept of the general adaptation syndrome and would suggest that if EIMD does indeed promote muscle development, optimum benefits would be realized from mild to moderate damage. However, an optimal degree of damage for maximizing muscle growth, assuming one does in fact exist, remains to be determined.»

- «It also deserves mention that noneccentric aerobic endurance exercise can cause extensive muscle soreness. Studies show the presence of DOMS after marathon running and long-duration cycling (57). These types of exercise are not generally associated with significant hypertrophic adaptations, indicating that soreness alone is not necessarily suggestive of growth.»

- «Even lighter loads protect muscles from experiencing DOMS during subsequent bouts of exercise (26). Therefore, training a muscle group on a frequent basis would reduce soreness, yet could still deliver impressive hypertrophic results. A number of explanations have been provided to explain the repeated bout effect, including a strengthening of connective tissue, increased efficiency in the recruitment of motor units, greater motor unit synchronization, a more even distribution of the workload among fibers, and/or a greater contribution of synergistic muscles (3,57)..»

– «Because muscle damage is theorized to mediate hypertrophic adaptations (48), there is some justification to actively seek muscle damage during a training session if maximal hypertrophy is the desired goal.»

- «..high levels of soreness should be regarded as detrimental because it is a sign that the lifter has exceeded the capacity for the muscle to efficiently repair itself. Moreover, excessive soreness can impede the ability to train optimally and decrease motivation to train. Thus, the applicability of DOMS in assessing workout quality is inherently limited, and it therefore should not be used as a definitive gauge of results.»

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