Utgave 89 – I denne utgaven: Alan Aragon Research Review october 2011:
– Editor’s Cut: The modern anti-grain crusade: should any of its claims be taken seriously? (av Alan Aragon)
– The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses (Jamurtas AZ et al.)
– Eating frequency is higher in weight loss maintainers and normal-weight individuals than in overweight individuals (Bachman JL et al.)
– Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise while consuming commercially available pre- and post-workout supplements, NO-Shotgun® and NO-Synthesize® on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of protein synthesis, and clinical safety markers in males (Spillane M et al.)
– Ingestion of 10 grams of whey protein prior to a single bout of resistance exercise does not augment Akt/mTOR pathway signaling compared to carbohydrate. (Cooke MB et al.)
– The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men (Bhasin S et al)
– In the lay press: It’s time to rant about the sport of bodybuilding (av Alan Aragon)
– Good Question: Can BCAA metabolism in rodents be extrapolated to humans? (av Alan Aragon)
* For å lese hele artiklene referert til i denne utgaven, må du abonnere på AARR! Anbefales for alle som arbeider med trening eller ernæring, eller et over middels interesserte.
”After all is said and done, more is said than done”
Alan Aragon Editor’s Cut: The modern anti-grain crusade: should any of its claims be taken seriously? (kornprodukter, brød, hvete, havre).
– «Ind this is nothing more than an ignorant dismissal of the research associating (1-4) & directly demonstrating (5-10) positive health effects of several of the aforementioned species» (rice, buckwheat, sorghum, oats, millet, barley, rye, quinoa, amaranth, wheat, triticale, corn, and teff).
– «I would also add that strict avoidance of any food can be unhealthy from a psychological standpoint. (11,12)»
– «…long-term (1 year or longer) controlled studies comparing diets of widely varying carbohydrate content have failed to show significant differences in weight loss. (16-21)…» (karbohydrater, lavkarbo, low-carb).
– «…Although correlation does not necessarily equal causation, no peer-reviewed research in existence associates vegetarianism with a higher incidence of being overweight or obese. In fact, the opposite is consistently observed. (22-26)…» (vegetar, vegetarier, vegan, grønnsaker, frukt, bær, planter).
– Fylater/Phytates og Oxalater/oxalates: Antinutrients: «…They exist in a wide range of plant foods, including green/leafy vegetables….(27)» (antinæringsstoffer)
– Eliminasjon av kjøtt og økt inntak av fylater fra korn og belgfrukter kan redusere opptaket av jern/iron og sink/zinc (28), men bekymringene har ikke tydelig forskningsbasert grunnlag, spesielt i indistruelle land med rikelig matforsyninger (29).
– «Another potential concern is wheat consumption reducing the absorption of calcium. Weaver et al investigated this question through a series of randomized crossover studies and found that with the exception of wheat bran cereal, whole wheat flour products did not reduce calcium absorption when coingested with milk. (30)…» (31, 32).
– «…the most commonly cited factors in the global vitamin D3 deficiency problem are decreased penetration of UVB radiation (from less direct sunlight, the use of sunscreen, population residence shifts to higher latitudes, etc), age-related decreases in 7-dehydrocholesterol (the precursor of vitamin D3 in the skin), and obesity. (33, 35)….» (D-vitamin, D vitamin)
– Overvektige/fedme personer tar opp D-vitamin fra solen dårligere enn normalvektige – hele 57 % dårligere! (37).
– «…Whole grains consistently show an inverse correlation with inflammation, while refined grains are positively correlated with inflammation. (38-41)…»
– «…Katcher et al found that 3 daily servings of whole grain foods was more effective than refined grains for reducing inflammation (indexed by C-reactive protein) and abdominal fat. (42)….»
– Flere studier finner nøytrale effekter fra kornprodukter på markører for inflammasjon/betennelse (45, 46).
– Glutenintoleranse/cøliaki/gluten intoleranceCeliac disease (CD): 8-10 måter å teste det, og pågående kontrovers om hvilke tester som er best. Det er estimert at 0,3-1,2 % har befolkningen har sølliaki (47).
– Lektiner/Lectins: «…While this all sounds very menacing, the data supporting these concerns is far from definitive. Frankly, it’s not very compelling. It’s largely speculative since it’s based primarily on animal models and in vitro data. To their credit, the authors of this anti- Neolithic article swallow their pride and admit the following despite its lack of support for their cause… (50)…»
– «Summary Points:
— Saying that all grains are unhealthy and should be avoided is just as biased as saying that all grains are superfoods that should be consumed in massive amounts by all. Both extremes are overzealous and unobjective.
— Claiming that grains cause obesity is false on many counts. Obesity is a multifactorial condition that is ultimately attributable to the accumulation of an unused energy surplus over time (which is governed by behavioral, hormonal, & genetic factors); it’s not attributable to any particular type of food.
— Grains contain antinutrients such as phytates and oxalates, but so do most commonly consumed plant foods. Fiber- mediated reductions in nutrient bioavailability are of questionable functional significance, especially in the case of varied, omnivorous diets in developed countries with abundant food supplies.
— The idea that grains are the cause of the vitamin D deficiency pandemic is an oversimplification based on insufficient evidence. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is based on a combination of factors. An important one is excess bodyfat’s ability to impair vitamin D3 bioavailability.
— Observational & interventional research has consistently shown that grains have no significant impact on inflammation. The idea that inflammation is the root of all disease is an oversimplification, but oh is it catchy.
— Estimates of celiac disease (CD) prevalence range from 0.3-1.2%. Gluten sensitivity (GS) shares similar symptoms with CD, but does not register as CD in clinical tests, and is often (mistakenly) assumed to not exist. An emerging body of evidence indicates that GS is a indeed a separate condition from CD.
— Lectins have widely variable impacts on health. The lectins in grains (wheat in particular) & legumes have been alleged to cause a host of diseases resulting from increased gut permeability. These concerns have an interesting hypothetical framework, but lack support from controlled human trials.
— Wheat appears to be the most problematic and least protective of the grains, so it should be the first choice for moderation, minimization, or in some cases where it’s warranted – elimination.»
(Hvete, hvetekorn, hvetebrød).
* Alan Aragon: AARR October 2011:
1. Aune et al, Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ. 2011 Nov 10;343:d6617. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d6617. [Medline]
2. Flight I, Clifton P. Cereal grains and legumes in the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke: a review of the literature. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;60(10):1145-59. [Medline]
3. Jensen MK, et al. Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):275-83. [Medline]
4. Venn BJ, Mann JI. Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;58(11):1443-61. [Medline]
5. Maki KC, et al. Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Feb;110(2):205-14. [Medline]
6. Katcher HI, et al. The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):79-90. [Medline]
7. Rave K, et al. Improvement of insulin resistance after diet with a whole-grain based dietary product: results of a randomized, controlled cross-over study in obese subjects with elevated fasting blood glucose. Br J Nutr. 2007 Nov;98(5):929-36. [Medline]
8. Kelly SA, et al. Wholegrain cereals for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD005051. [Medline]
9. Pereira MA, et al. Effect of whole grains on insulin sensitivity in overweight hyperinsulinemic adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 May;75(5):848-55. [Medline]
10. Jang Y, et al. Consumption of whole grain and legume powder reduces insulin demand, lipid peroxidation, and plasma homocysteine concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease: randomized controlled clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Dec;21(12):2065-71. [Medline]
11. Smith CF, et al. Flexible vs. Rigid dieting strategies: relationship with adverse behavioral outcomes. Appetite. 1999 Jun;32(3):295- 305. [Medline]
12. Stewart TM, et al. Rigid vs. flexible dieting: association with eating disorder symptoms in nonobese women. Appetite. 2002 Feb;38(1):39-44. [Medline]
13. McDonald L. The energy balance equation. Aug 2009. [Bodyrecomposition]
14. McDonald L. How we get fat. Mar 2010. [Bodyrecomposition]
15. Giacco R, et al. Whole grain intake in relation to body weight: From epidemiological evidence to clinical trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Dec;21(12):901-8. Epub 2011 Oct 28. [Medline]
16. Wycherley TP, et al. Long-term effects of weight loss with a very low carbohydrate and low fat diet on vascular function in overweight and obese patients. J Intern Med. 2010 May;267(5):452-61. [Medline]
17. Foster GD, et al. Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years on a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Aug 3;153(3):147-57. [Medline]
18. Brinkworth GD, et al. Long-term effects of a very-low- carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):23-32. [Medline]
19. Gardner CD, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007 Mar 7;297(9):969-77. [Medline]
20. Dansiger ML, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2005 Jan 5;293(1):43-53. [Medline]
21. Stern L, et al. The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):778-85. [Medline]
22. Gammon CS, et al. Vegetarianism, vitamin B12 status, and insulin resistance in a group of predominantly overweight/obese South Asian women. Nutrition. 2011 Aug 10. [Epub ahead of print] [Medline]
23. Craig WJ, et al. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Jul;109(7):1266-82. [Medline]
24. Tonstad S, et al. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 May;32(5):791- 6. Epub 2009 Apr 7. [Medline]
25. Key TJ, et al. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006 Feb;65(1):35-41. [Medline]
26. Sabaté J. The contribution of vegetarian diets to human health. Forum Nutr. 2003;56:218-20. [Medline]
27. Gupta S, et al. Analysis of nutrient and antinutrient content of underutilized green leafy vegetables. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 2005;38(4):339-45. [LWT- Elsevier]
28. Hunt JR. Moving toward a plant-based diet: are iron and zinc at risk? Nutr Rev. 2002 May;60(5 Pt 1):127-34. [Medline]
29. Hunt JR. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):633S-639S. [Medline]
30. Weaver CM, et al. Human calcium absorption from whole-wheat products. J Nutr. 1991 Nov;121(11):1769-75. [Medline]
31. Andersson H, et al. The effects of breads containing similar amounts of phytate but different amounts of wheat bran on calcium, zinc and iron balance in man. Br J Nutr. 1983 Nov;50(3):503-10. [Medline]
32. Sandström B, et al. A high oat-bran intake does not impair zinc absorption in humans when added to a low-fiber animal protein- based diet. J Nutr. 2000 Mar;130(3):594-9. [Medline]
33. Holick MF. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic and consequences for nonskeletal health: mechanisms of action. Mol Aspects Med. 2008 Dec;29(6):361-8. Epub 2008 Sep 2 [Medline]
34. Batchelor AJ, Compston JE. Reduced plasma half-life of radio- labelled 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in subjects receiving a high fiber diet. Br J Nutr. 1983 Mar;49(2):213-6. [Medline]
35. Holick MF, Chen TC. Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):1080S- 6S. [Medline]
36. Foss YJ. Vitamin D deficiency is the cause of common obesity. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Mar;72(3):314-21. Epub 2008 Dec 2. [Medline]
37. Wortsman J, et al. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Sep;72(3):690-3. [Medline]
38. Anderson AL, et al. Dietary patterns, insulin sensitivity and inflammation in older adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep 14. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.162. [Epub ahead of print] [Medline]
39. Qi L, et al. Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women. Diabetes Care. 2006 Feb;29(2):207-11. [Medline]
40. Masters RC, et al. Whole and refined grain intakes are related to inflammatory protein concentrations in human plasma. J Nutr. 2010 Mar;140(3):587-94. [Medline]
41. Lutsey PL, et al. Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study. Br J Nutr. 2007 Aug;98(2):397-405. Epub 2007 Mar 29. [Medline]
42. Jensen MK, et al. Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation 1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):275-83. [Medline]
43. Katcher HI, et al. The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):79-90. [Medline]
44. Andersson A, et al. Whole-grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1401-7. [Medline]
45. Tighe P, et al. Effect of increased consumption of whole-grain foods on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy middle-aged persons: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print] [Medline]
46. Brownlee IA, et al. Markers of cardiovascular risk are not changed by increased whole-grain intake: the WHOLEheart study, a randomised, controlled dietary intervention. Br J Nutr. 2010 Jul;104(1):125-34. Epub 2010 Mar 23. [Medline]
47. Bizzaro N, et al. Cutting-Edge Issues in Celiac Disease and in Gluten Intolerance. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2010 Dec 23. [Epub ahead of print] [Medline]
48. Thompson T. Gluten contamination of commercial oat products in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2004 Nov 4;351(19):2021-2. [Medline] [NEJM – go here to view the comparison chart].
49. Ajit Varki, et al. Chapter 30, Plant Lectins. Essentials of Glycobiology, 2nd Edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2009. [NCBI]
50. Carrera-Bastos P, et al. The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology. 2001;2:15-35. [Dovepress]
51. Burr ML, et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet. 1989 Sep 30;2(8666):757-61. [Medline]
52. Ness AR, et al. The long-term effect of dietary advice in men with coronary disease: follow-up of the Diet and Reinfarction trial (DART). Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jun;56(6):512-8. [Medline]
53. Jenkins DJ, et al. Effect of wheat bran on glycemic control and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002 Sep;25(9):1522-8. [Medline]
54. Jacobs DR Jr, Steffen LM. Wheat bran, whole grain, and food synergy. Diabetes Care. 2002 Sep;25(9):1652-3. [Medline]
En studie fra oktober 2011 fant at høy og lav glykemsk indeks (GI) ga lignende resultater ved kondisjonstrening, på treningsytelse, beta-endorfin/beta-endorphin nivåer og karbohydrat og fett oksidering under treningen.
– Andre studier (2, 3) viser også at GI er av liten betydning før utholdenhetstrening/kardio/kondisjon, Donaldson et al (2) summerer: (karbohydrater)
— “Athletes are commonly instructed to consume low-GI (LGI) carbohydrate (CHO) before exercise, but this recommendation appears to be based on the results of only a few studies, whereas others have found that the GI of CHO ingested before exercise has no impact on performance.”
* Alan Aragon: AARR October 2011:
1) Jamurtas AZ, Tofas T, Fatouros I, Nikolaidis MG, Paschalis V, Yfanti C, Raptis S, Koutedakis Y. The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2011 Oct 20;8:15. Pubmed.
2) Donaldson CM, et al. Glycemic index and endurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010 Apr;20(2):154-65. [Medline]
3) Little JP, et al. Effect of low- and high-glycemic-index meals on metabolism and performance during high- intensity, intermittent exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010 Dec;20(6):447-56. [Medline]
En observasjonell studie fra november 2011 fant at normalvektige og vekttap vedlikeholdere hadde en noe høyere måltidsfrekvens enn overvektige, men det var veldig liten forskjell; hendholdsvis antall måltider og snacks; 2,7 + 2,3, 2,7 + 2 & 2,8 + 1,5. (periodisk faste, intermittent fasting, IF, PF, måltider, antall måltider)
– «…A recent systematic review by Mesas et al examined 153 studies (73 of which were published 2008 or later) and find no consistent relationship between excess weight and a host of factors including skipping breakfast, eating frequency, snacking, and consumption of large food portions. (2).»
* Alan Aragon: AARR October 2011:
1) Bachman JL, Phelan S, Wing RR, Raynor HA. Eating frequency is higher in weight loss maintainers and normal-weight individuals than in overweight individuals. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Nov;111(11):1730-4. Pubmed.
2) Mesas AE, et al. Selected eating behaviours and excess body weight: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2011 Sep 28. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00936.x. [Epub ahead of print] [Medline]
En studie fra november 2011 fant at de kommersielle produktene NO-Shotgun and NO- Synthesize forbedret styrke og kroppskomposisjon bedre enn karbohydrater, men selv om rapportert proteininntak fra dietten ser lik ut i studien (1,31 g/kg/kroppsvekt i karb gruppen & 1,25 g/kg/kroppsvekt i NOSS gruppen), så fikk Alan bekreftet fra en av forskerne at dette ikke inkluderte tilskuddene, noe som betyr at NOSS gruppen faktisk endte på 1,63 g/kg/kroppsvekt, noe som er midt innenfor det som er vist å gi optimal hypertrofi (3, 4) (proteininntak, proteiner, hypertrofi, styrke)
– ‘Nye’ Kreatintyper som taurinate, gluconate, & ethyl ester vs. Kreatin Monohydrat/Creatine Monohydrate“…there is little to no evidence supporting marketing claims that these newer forms of creatine are more stable, digested faster, and more effective in increasing muscle creatine levels and/or associated with fewer side effects than CM.” (2)
* Alan Aragon: AARR October 2011:
1) Spillane M, Schwarz N, Leddy S, Correa T, Minter M, Longoria V, Willoughby DS. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise while consuming commercially available pre- and post-workout supplements, NO-Shotgun® and NO-Synthesize® on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of protein synthesis, and clinical safety markers in males. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011 Nov 3;8:78. Pubmed.
2) Jäger R, Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine. Amino Acids. 2011 May;40(5):1369-83. Epub 2011 Mar 22. [Medline]
3) Campbell B, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Sep 26;4:8. [Medline]
4) Wilson J, Wilson GJ. Contemporary issues in protein requirements and consumption for resistance trained athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2006 Jun 5;3:7-27. [Medline]
En studie fra november 2011 fant at 10 g myseprotein/whey før trening ikke forsterket Akt/mTOR pathway signalene sammenlignet med karbohydrat. (proteintiming, protein timing, proteininntak)
– «…Thus far, the non- acute evidence is insufficient for recommending specific protein dosing & timing regimes relative to training, as long as total daily needs are met…»
– Tilskuddene ble her tatt før trening/pre–workout: «…The relevance here is that both treatments in the present study caused insulin elevations within the range known to maximally inhibit muscle protein breakdown (15-30 μIU/ml).(3) The insulin peaks occurred at the start of the training bout, and insulin was still significantly elevated 15 minutes postexercise…»
– «…An important note is that the lack of Akt/mTOR signaling does not necessarily equate to an absence of muscle protein synthesis. For example, Tang et al’s postexercise dosing of 10 g whey + 21 g fructose stimulated muscle protein synthesis to a greater degree than the carb-only treatment (10g maltodextrin + 21 g fructose), and this occurred despite a lack of mTOR activation. (2).»
* Alan Aragon: AARR October 2011:
1) Cooke MB, La Bounty P, Buford T, Shelmadine B, Redd L, Hudson G, Willoughby DS. Ingestion of 10 grams of whey protein prior to a single bout of resistance exercise does not augment Akt/mTOR pathway signaling compared to carbohydrate. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2011 Nov 8;8(1):18. [Epub ahead of print]. Pubmed.
2) Tang JE, et al. Minimal whey protein with carbohydrate stimulates muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise in trained young men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007 Dec;32(6):1132-1138. [Medline]
3) Greenhaff PL, et al. Disassociation between the effects of amino acids and insulin on signaling, ubiquitin ligases, and protein turnover in human muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Sep;295(3):E595-604. [Medline]
En studie fra juli 1996 undersøkte effekten av testosteron injesering (600 mg of testosterone enanthate) og fant meget gode effekter, både i gruppen som ikke trente og de som trente – naturligvis best hos de som trente. (anabole steroider, anabolic steroids, AAS)
– «…The main findings were that supraphysiologic doses of testosterone increase muscular mass and strength. The results of this study silenced the then-common doubters of the striking effectiveness of AAS. A notable outcome was the 6.1 kg (13.42 lb) fat-free mass gain in the AAS + exercise group (4 kg more than placebo + exercise), in just 10 weeks….»
– «The authors admitted that their chosen dose (600 mg/week) was the highest yet administered in any study of athletic performance. The point is, while the dose used in this study is indeed supraphysiological, it’s only a snippet of the range used by competitive & recreational athletes (who often stack multiple anabolic/androgenic drugs).»
– «Another notable outcome was the lack of differences in mood & blood lipids, with the exception of a slight drop in HDL in the exercising placebo group.»
* Alan Aragon: AARR October 2011:
1) Bhasin S, Storer TW, Berman N, Callegari C, Clevenger B, Phillips J, Bunnell TJ, Tricker R, Shirazi A, Casaburi R. The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jul 4;335(1):1-7. Pubmed.
In the lay press: It’s time to rant about the sport of bodybuilding:
– «…AAS use is common in a wide range of mainstream professional sports, including major league baseball and American football. (1,2) However, since performance enhancement is a more discrete result than huge/shredded muscles, drug use in mainstream sports is much easier for the masses to digest (or deny)….»
– Bruk av ‘site enhancement oil’ (SEO)«…I’ll quote one of the members because he earned his pro card by winning the 2007 NABBA Mr. Universe, and has better inside knowledge than the average person:
“I respect your opinion and no I do not have any physical evidence, so take what I’m saying with a grain of salt. Yes, most pros do use synthol, in fact it’s usually a basic protocol in most people’s prep. Even in amateurs it’s widespread. I’m not going to say that I agree with it or disagree, but it’s something you have to do to give you that edge, and everyone, myself included, will be willing to use these to gain that extra edge. Any lagging bodyparts or certain areas of the muscle that are difficult to bring up can easily be manipulated by oil. Just takes some knowledge on where to hit the muscle and how much oil to use. It hurts like a bitch, the most painful injections you’ll ever do in your life.”…» (Kroppsbygging, kroppsbyggere, steroider, muskelstørrelse)
– «…Should synthol, esiclene, and other such means of muscle modification be viewed in the same light as implants? In my opinion, all of those tactics defeat the original purpose of bodybuilding.»
* Alan Aragon: AARR October 2011:
1. Lippi G, et al. Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic androgenic steroids doping. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011 May;11(5):362-73. [Medline]
2. Ambrose PJ. Drug use in sports: a veritable arena for pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2004 Jul- Aug;44(4):501-14; quiz 514-6. [Medline]
3. Pupka A, et al. The usage of synthol in the body building. Polim Med. 2009;39(1):63-5. [Medline]
4. Esposito R, et al. Anabolic agents in kidney disease: the effect of formebolone on protein synthesis in patients with renal insufficiency or nephrosis. Curr Med Res Opin. 1975;3(1):43-5. [Medline]
5. Cuatrecasas Membrado JM, Bosch Banyeres JM. Study of non-hypophysiary growth retardation treated with formebolone. An Esp Pediatr. 1985 Jan;22(1):27-32. [Medline]
Good Question: Can BCAA metabolism in rodents be extrapolated to humans? Metabolisering av BCAA’s er meget forskjellig i rotter/rats/gnagere/rodents og mennesker (4). (proteinmetabolisme, proteininntak, forsøk på dyr, dyreforsøk)
– «…Ultimately, based on fundamental differences in BCAA and carbohydrate metabolism, it’s not justified to get too excited (or too disappointed) with rodent results until they’re sufficiently replicated in relevantly designed human trials….»
* Referanser: Alan Aragon: AARR October 2011:
1. Shimomura Y, et al/ Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle. J Nutr. 2006 Feb;136(2):529S- 532S. [Medline]
2. Harris RA, et al. Studies on the regulation of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes and their kinases. Adv Enzyme Regul. 1997;37:271-93. [Medline]
3. Wilson GJ, et al. Leucine or carbohydrate supplementation reduces AMPK and eEF2 phosphorylation and extends postprandial muscle protein synthesis in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Sep 13. [Epub ahead of print] [Medline]
4) Suryawan A, Hawes JW, Harris RA, Shimomura Y, Jenkins AE, Hutson SM. A molecular model of human branched-chain amino acid metabolism.Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jul;68(1):72-81. Pubmed.