Utgave 79 – I denne utgaven: Notater fra Alan Aragon’s Research Review for august 2011 – en betalingstjeneste som jeg anbefaler på det sterkeste til alle med interesse innenfor ernæring, trening og helse.
– In The Lay Press: Gatorade’s G-Series Fit – for whom?
– Editor’s Cut: A procedural and methodological analysis of the Tabata protocol: (av James Heathers)
– Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis.
- Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index.
– Effect of low doses of long-chain n-3 PUFAs on endothelial function and arterial stiffness: a randomized controlled trial.
– Dried Raisins are a Cost-Effective Alternative to Sports Jelly Beans in Prolonged Cycling.
– Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signaling responses after resistance exercise.
– Good Question: Bulking & cutting progress targets to gain lean weight past the newbie stage.
«…Because while believing you win won’t guarantee it, believing you’re going to lose pretty much does….»
– Lyle McDonald
In The Lay Press: Gatorade’s G-Series Fit – for whom?
– Gatorade sportsdrikken ‘G-series Fit’ markedsføres for ‘alle’, men den vil ikke nødvendigvis gi noen fordeler til folk flest, men heller flytte kalorier som kunne ha kommet fra sunne matvarer over til sukkerholdig drikke.
- Beis et al recently examined the dietary intake of 10 highly- trained Ethiopian long distance runners in preparation for major competitions (2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 2008 Berlin marathon). (8) Interest in studying this population is easily explained in the following quote from the authors:
“Notably, middle- and long-distance runners from Ethiopia and Kenya hold over 90% of both all-time world records as well as the current top-10 positions in world event rankings.”
Motivational guru Anthony Robbins is credited for the expression that success leaves clues. It’s tough to disagree that a thing or two can be learned from the habits of successful athletes, even if there’s no guarantee whether or not every habit contributes to their success. Subjects kept training records, and their dietary intake was directly observed, weighed and recorded. The interesting findings of the Ethiopian endurance superheroes were as follows:
Training occurred twice a day. The morning run (7 am) took place before breakfast, and was the more intense bout of the day, at a pace of 16-20 km/hr (9.9-12.4 mph) for 10- 20 km (6.2-12.4 mi). The afternoon session done before dinner (5 pm), was an easy run, at a pace of 10-15 km/hr (6.2-9.3 mph) for 6-10 km (3.7-6.2 mi).
High-intensity interval training sessions were done 2-3 times per week. Once a week, a 20-25 km (12.4-15.5 mi) run was done at near race speed.
Estimated daily energy intake was 13,375 kJ (3194.5 kcal). Subjects’ energy expenditure matched their intake.
Macronutrition consisted of 64.3% carbohydrate (545 g; 9.7g/kg), 23.3% fat (83 g), and 12.4% protein (99 g, 1.8 g/kg) of which 76% was vegetable-derived.
Food selection is predominated with foods that are decidedly not Paleo (for those of you reading AARR for the first time, this is a recurring joke). See their foods here (Flattbrød/Injera, brød, vegetabilsk olje, pasta = 56,2 % av kal inntaket..)
Daily fluid intake was mainly water (1751 mL). Other fluid sources were modest amounts of milk, tea, orange juice and Besso – a mixture of barley and water.
Ready for the punchline? The athletes did not consume any fluids before or during their training sessions. Yes, you read that correctly.
So, what’s going on here? Shouldn’t these athletes be gassing- out from a lack of precisely constructed pre, during, and postexercise sports beverages? Apparently, the absence of cutting-edge nutritional technology surrounding training is not preventing them from dominating the sport. Are these athletes really that gifted, or could it be possible that products like Gatorade’s G-Series are just an expensive way of displacing calories from ‘real’ foods that are more nutrient-rich? The answer to the question I asked in the title of this article might forever remain a mystery.»
* Referanser: Alan Aragon:
1. Kays J, Phillips–Han A. Gatorade: The idea that launched an industry. Explore Magazine, Office of Research, University of Florida. Accessed Aug, 2011. [UF]
2. Coyle EF. Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004 Jan;22(1):39-55. [Medline]
3. ACSM, Sawka MN, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Feb;39(2):377-90. [Medline]
4. Silveira MB, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and obesity. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Oct;10(10A):1181-6. [Medline]
5. Salas-Salvadó J. et al. Conjugated linoleic acid intake in humans: a systematic review focusing on its effect on body composition, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46(6):479-88. [Medline]
6. Tricon S, et al. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on human health-related outcomes. Proc Nutr Soc. 2005 May;64(2):171-82. [Medline]
7. Risérus U, et al. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, and proinflammatory markers in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug;80(2):279-83. [Medline]
Editor’s Cut: A procedural and methodological analysis of the Tabata protocol: BY James Heathers: Den originale TABATA-protokollen er helt klart effektivt, men veldig stressfull, og det er ikke sikkert lignende metoder gir like gode resultater, og TABATA er heller ikke nødvendigvis bedre enn alle andre typer intervaller.
- «If you’re feeling analytical (and brave), you can approximate it using this extremely rough protocol and compare the difference for yourself – if you have access to an exercise bike which has a power output and a heart rate monitor, that is. Warm up slowly and slowly increase the rate of work you’re doing until your heart rate approaches your age-adjusted maximum, which is approximately 207 – (0.67 * your age) (Jackson et. al., 2007). Now, set it your bike to 170% of that power output – it should be difficult but not impossible to pedal at 90 RPM. For the longest 4 minutes of your life, try it out. If you feel as maximally exhausted as this with other methods, you’re being faithful to the original design.»
1) The Tabata protocol, as originally constructed, is extremely effective. The parameters and protocol seem intuitively designed to maximally and quickly stress the aerobic and anaerobic systems.
2) However, there is no direct evidence to suggest that a similar method of maximally depleting the anaerobic system over the short-term would be less effective. That is, there is no evidence that the protocol is necessarily more effective than related methods.
3) Results from the initial study would be difficult to reproduce. The protocol, while short, is extremely stressful and proportionally more difficult even than
other similar high-intensity exercise studies. Laboratory studies are also more likely to achieve
compliance than day-to-day exercise. Tabata himself notes it would be highly questionable to recommend this kind of program as it was originally designed to untrained individuals (1).
4) Most ‘Tabata’ workouts employed are not faithful to the principles of the original program.»
* Referanser: Alan Aragon:
1) http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/eng/html/research/areas/feat- researchers/interview/izumi_t.html/ – this is an interview conducted with Dr. Tabata at his university web page.
2) Burgomaster KA, Hughes SC, Heigenhauser GJ, Bradwell SN, Gibala MJ. «Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans.» J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jun;98(6):1985-90. [Medline]
3) Friedman JE, Neufer PD, Dohm GL. «Regulation of glycogen resynthesis following exercise. Dietary considerations.» Sports Med. 1991 Apr;11(4):232-43. [Medline]
4) Fuller NJ, Laskey MA, Elia M. «Assessment of the composition of major body regions by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), with special reference to limb muscle mass.» Clin Physiol. 1992 May;12(3):253-66. [Medline]
5) Gibala MJ, Little JP, van Essen M, Wilkin GP, Burgomaster KA, Safdar A, Raha S, Tarnopolsky MA. «Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance.» J Physiol. 2006 Sep 15;575(Pt 3):901-11. [Medline]
6) Jackson AS. «Estimating maximum heart rate from age: is it a linear relationship?» Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 May;39(5):821. [Medline]
7) Korff T, Romer LM, Mayhew I, Martin JC. «Effect of pedaling technique on mechanical effectiveness and efficiency in cyclists.» Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Jun;39(6):991-5. . [Medline]
8) Lombard, W. P., «The Tendon Action and Leverage of Two-joint Muscles of the Hind Leg of the Frog, with Special Reference to the Spring Movement,» in Wahr, G. ‘Contributions to Medical Research.’ Ann Arbor: 1903,280. [Google Books]
9) Marsh GD, Paterson DH, Potwarka JJ, Thompson RT. «Transient changes in muscle high-energy phosphates during moderate exercise.» J Appl Physiol. 1993 Aug;75(2):648-56. [Medline]
10) Stepto NK, Hawley JA, Dennis SC, Hopkins WG. «Effects of different interval-training programs on cycling time-trial performance.» Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 May;31(5):736-41. [Medline]
11) Tabata I, Nishimura K, Kouzaki M, Hirai Y, Ogita F, Miyachi M, Yamamoto K. «Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high- intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max.» Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Oct;28(10):1327-30. [Medline]
12) Tabata I, Irisawa K, Kouzaki M, Nishimura K, Ogita F, Miyachi M. «Metabolic profile of high intensity intermittent exercises.» Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 Mar;29(3):390-5. [Medline]
13) Tremblay A, Simoneau JA, Bouchard C. «Impact of exercise intensity on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism.»
Metabolism. 1994 Jul;43(7):814-8. [Medline]
En forskningsanalyse fra august 2010 så på observasjonelle studier på inntak av behandlet og ubehandlet rødt kjøtt, og risikoen for type 2 diabetes, og fant en positiv korrelasjon på 1,12, 1,32 og 1,14 for 1 servering/dag med ubehandlet, behandlet og totalt rødt kjøtt inntak. (notat: Biff, svinekjøtt, sukkersyke, diabetes type 2.). Når vi ser på kontrollerte studier ser vi dog likevel at å erstatte karbohydrater med økt proteininntak reduserer risikoen, så i Alan’s ord: «In the present case of red meat, where disparate outcomes exist between uncontrolled and controlled studies, the latter holds more weight than the former.» (2-5).
* Referanser: Alan Aragon:
1. Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM, Schulze MB, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):1088-96. Epub 2011 Aug 10. Pubmed.
2. Schatzkin A, et al. A comparison of a food frequency questionnaire with a 24-hour recall for use in an epidemiological cohort study: results from the biomarker- based Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study. Int J Epidemiol. 2003 Dec;32(6):1054-62, [Medline]
3. Rajpathak SN, et al. The role of iron in type 2 diabetes in humans. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Jul;1790(7):671-81. Epub 2008 May 3. [Medline]
4. Micha R, et al. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010 Jun 1;121(21):2271-83. Epub 2010 May 17. [Medline]
5. Farnsworth E, et al. Effect of a high-protein, energy- restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and
lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):31-9. [Medline]
En studie fra august 2011 så på estimering av glykemisk indeks/GI ved hjelp av å se på næringssammensetningen, i stedet for å måle det direkte, og konkluderte med at det er limitasjoner til å kalkulere GI på denne måten. Det er også verdt å merke seg at individuelle matvarers GI har liten betydning i et blandet måltid (2-4).
* Referanser: Alan Aragon:
1) Dodd H, Williams S, Brown R, Venn B. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):992-6. Epub 2011 Aug 10. Pubmed.
2) Pi-Sunyer FX. Glycemic index and disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):290S-8S. [Medline]
3) Hollenbeck CB, et al. Glycemic effects of carbohydrates: a different perspective. Diabetes Care. 1986 Nov- Dec;9(6):641-7. [Medline]
4) Coulston AM, et al. Effect of source of dietary carbohydrate on plasma glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to test meals in subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Nov;40(5):965-70. [Medline]
En studie fra august 2011 så på effekten av Omega-3 inntak og arteriell stivhet/arteriel stiffness, og fant ingen fordeler fra omega-3 inntak på 1,45, 0,9 eller 1,8 g/daglig. De fant dog en reduksjon i triacylglycerol/triglyceride/triglyserid/triasylglyserol ved den høyeste dosen (1,8 g/daglig). (notater: n-3, fiskeolje).
* Referanser: Alan Aragon:
1) Sanders TA, Hall WL, Maniou Z, Lewis F, Seed PT, Chowienczyk PJ. Effect of low doses of long-chain n-3 PUFAs on endothelial function and arterial stiffness: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):973-80. Epub 2011 Aug 24. Pubmed.
En studie fra august 2011 sammenlignet rosiner med ‘sports jelly beans‘ under langvarig sykling, og fant at begge to forbedret ytelsen like godt, og oppfattet anstrengelse var lik mellom gruppene. (Notater: Kardio, kondisjonstrening).
* Referanser: Alan Aragon:
1) Rietschier HL, Henagan TM, Earnest CP, Baker BL, Cortez CC, Stewart LK. Sun-Dried Raisins are a Cost-Effective Alternative to Sports Jelly Beans in Prolonged Cycling. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Aug 30. [Epub ahead of print]. Pubmed.
En studie fra juli 2011 sammenlignet en 25 g dose med myseprotein/whey protein rett etter trening, med den samme dosen fortdelt over 10 2,5 g puls-doser hver time, og fant fordeler i gruppen som fikk én stor dose. (14, 15). (Notater: Måltidsfrekvens, antall måltider, protein timing, næringstiming, nutrient timing.)
– «To quote the authors’ practical recommendation, “We speculated that, over time, the habitual practice of consuming rapidly digested proteins after resistance exercise would provide an anabolic advantage that leads to greater hypertrophy…” Recent acute & chronic data conflict with this recommendation. Reitelseder et al found no significant difference in myofibrillar protein synthesis in the 6-hour post-resistance training period when comparing whey and casein. (16) The latter study concurred with previous work by Tipton et al, who found no significant difference in net protein balance between that yielded by whey or casein in a 5-hour postexercise test period. (17) In addition, Burd et al recently found that resistance training to failure was able to sensitize skeletal muscle to myofibrillar protein synthesis from protein ingestion for up to 24 hours postexercise. (18).
The authors of the present study cited a review by Phillips et al to support the claim that their recommendation was backed by longer-term supplementation trials. (19). Phillips et al present 2 studies comparing protein timing (as opposed to protein addition) relative to the training bout. (20,21) However, the authors of the present study fail to mention that the majority of chronic studies with matched intakes shows a lack of timing effect. (22-26)»
* Referanser: Alan Aragon:
1) West DW, Burd NA, Coffey VG, Baker SK, Burke LM, Hawley JA, Moore DR, Stellingwerff T, Phillips SM. Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signaling responses after resistance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):795-803. Epub 2011 Jul 27. Pubmed.
14. Glynn EL, et al. Excess leucine intake enhances muscle anabolic signaling but not net protein anabolism in young men and women. J Nutr 2010;140:1970–6. [Medline]
15. Atherton PJ, et al. Muscle full effect after oral protein: timedependent concordance and discordance between human muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:1080–8. [Medline]
16. Reitelseder S, et al. Whey and casein labeled with L-[1- 13C]leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestion. Am J Physiol
Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;300(1):E231-42. Epub 2010
Nov 2. [Medline]
17. Tipton KD, et al. Ingestion of casein and whey proteins
result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med
Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Dec;36(12):2073-81. [Medline]
18. Burd NA, et al. Enhanced amino acid sensitivity of myofibrillar protein synthesis persists for up to 24 h after resistance exercise in young men. J Nutr. 2011 Apr
1;141(4):568-73. Epub 2011 Feb 2. [Medline]
19. Phillips SM, et al. The role of milk- and soy-based protein in support of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein accretion in young and elderly persons. J Am Coll Nutr.
2009 Aug;28(4):343-54. [Medline]
20. Esmarck B, Timing of postexercise protein intake is
important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. J Physiol. 2001 Aug 15;535(Pt 1):301-11. [Medline]
21. Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Nov;38(11):1918-25. [Medline]
22. Keim NL, et al. Weight loss is greater with consumption of large morning meals and fat-free mass is preserved with large evening meals in women on a controlled weight reduction regimen. J Nutr. 1997 Jan;127(1):75-82. [Medline]
23. Verdijk LB, et al. Protein supplementation before and after exercise does not further augment skeletal muscle hypertrophy after resistance training in elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb;89(2):608-16. [Medline]
24. Burk A, et al. Time-divided ingestion pattern of casein- based protein supplement stimulates an increase in fat-free body mass during resistance training in young untrained men. Nutr Res. 2009 Jun;29(6):405-13. [Medline]
25. Hoffman JR, et al. Effect of protein supplement timing on strength, power and body compositional changes in experienced resistance trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009 Apr;19(2):172-85. [Medline]
26. Wycherley TP, et al. Timing of protein ingestion relative to resistance exercise training does not influence body composition, energy expenditure, glycaemic control or cardiometabolic risk factors in a hypocaloric, high protein diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Dec;12(12):1097-105. [Medline]
Good Question: Bulking & cutting progress targets to gain lean weight past the newbie stage.
– En 3:1 ratio mellom ‘bulking’ og ‘cutting‘ ser ut til å fungere godt. Planlegg for lang tid – f. eks 9 mnd. ‘bulking’, 3 mnd. ‘cutting’. (notat: ‘lean gains, opp i vekt.)
* Referanser: Alan Aragon: