Down on Lumbar Flexion in Strength Training Programs? Enter the Reverse Crunch, mm. -> Trening & Kosthold; Verdt å lese, Utgave 76

Utgave 76 – I denne utgaven:
Down on Lumbar Flexion in Strength Training Programs? Enter the Reverse Crunch (av Eric Cressey)
– Why the US Sucks at Olympic Lifting: OL’ing Part 10 (av Lyle McDonald)
– Lose Weight, Lose Pressure (av James Krieger)
– The Problems With the 3500 Calorie Per Pound of Fat Figure, Part 2: (av James Krieger)
– Alcohol and Body Weight (av James Krieger)
– Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy, and Weight Management (av James Krieger)

Ukas sitat:
«The first follower is what transformes a lone nut, into a leader.»
– Derek Sivers

Down on Lumbar Flexion in Strength Training Programs? Enter the Reverse Crunch: En flott artikkel av Eric Cressey om fleksjon i korsryggen under trening. Fleksjon er ikke alltid djevelen, spesielt ikke for folk som lever i ekstensjon (anterior pelvic tilt/excessive lumbar extension). (notat: svai i korsryggen)

Et lite utdrag: «…These points in mind, I’m a firm believer that you should avoid:
a) end-range lumbar flexion
b) lumbar flexion exercises in those who already spend their entire lives in flexion
c) lumbar flexion under load
It seems pretty cut and dry, right?  Don’t move your lumbar spine and you’ll be fine, right? Tell that to someone who lives in lumbar hyperextension and anterior pelvic tilt..»

* Referanse: Eric Cressey.

Why the US Sucks at Olympic Lifting: OL’ing Part 10: Siste del av Lyle McDonald’s virkelig lange artikkelserie om hvorfor USA ‘suger’ i olympisk vektløfting. Oprinnelig var det langt flere deler enn 10, men Lyle har senere sammensatt de mer.

Lose Weight, Lose Pressure: En meta-analyse fra september 2011 gir en pekepinn på hvor stort dropp man kan forvente i blodtrykk bår overvektige personer med høyt blodtrykk/hypertensjon slanker seg.

«- Article summary: A recent meta-analysis showed that blood pressure decreases by 3-5 points when you’re overweight, hypertensive, and lose about 9 pounds by dieting. If you lose more, blood pressure may drop further, but it will depend upon many factors, including your starting point, how much weight you lose, etc.

- Points of Interest:
– Researchers gathered 8 diet studies lasting at least 6 months
– Combined, the studies involved a total of 2100 hypertensive participants
– Average systolic blood pressure dropped by 4.5 mm Hg, and average diastolic blood pressure dropped by 3.2 mm Hg
– Average weight loss across the studies was 8.8 pounds.

- Quotes:
– » In one of these studies, about 35% of the controls and 60% of the subjects on a diet were without medication after 56 weeks.»
– » Results for individuals could vary dramatically.»
– «The relationship between a drop in weight and drop in blood pressure is likely not linear across the spectrum of weight and blood pressure changes.»

* Referanser: James Krieger.
1)Siebenhofer, A., et al.  Long-term effects of weight-reducing diets in hypertensive patients.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  2011 Sep 7;9:CD008274. Pubmed.
2)Horvath, K., et al.  Long-term effects of weight-reducing interventions in hypertensive patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.  Arch Intern Med.  168(6):571-580, 2008.
3) Langford, H.G., et al.  Dietary therapy slows the return of hypertension after stopping prolonged medication.  JAMA.  253(5):657-664, 1985.
4) Whelton, P.K., et al.  Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons:  a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE).  TONE Collaborative Research Group.  JAMA.  279(11):839-846, 1998.
5) Wylie-Rosett, J., et al.  Trial of antihypertensive intervention and management: greater efficacy with weight reduction than with a sodium-potassium intervention.  J Am Diet Assoc.  93(4):408-415, 1993.

The Problems With the 3500 Calorie Per Pound of Fat Figure, Part 2: Dr. Kevin Hall har utviklet et nettverktøy som kan beregne forventet vekttap og nødvendig kaloriunderskudd langt mer nøyaktige enn den vanlige 3 500 kal per lbs metoden. (Notater: kaloriinntak, kaloribehov, energibehov, vektreduksjon, slanking).

* Referanser: James KriegerNIDDK: Body Weight Simulator.

Alcohol and Body Weight: Lavt til moderat inntak av alkohol er assosiert med lavere kroppsvekt, mens høyt inntak (30+ g/d) er assosiert med høyere kroppsvekt. Alkohol før et måltid er også vist å øke kaloriinntaket fra måltider, og det er ikke kompanert for i neste måltid.

«- Article Summary: Light to moderate alcohol intake (1-2 drinks per day maximum) can be a part of any effective weight management program, as long as you are mindful of your calorie intake. Also, it is better to consume alcohol with a meal than before a meal to avoid any potential appetite stimulatory effects.

- Points of Interest:
– Alcohol does inhibit fat burning during its metabolism, but does not affect fat balance over 24 hours if you do not consume more calories than you are burning
– Alcohol only causes weight gain when consumed in excess of calorie needs
– Moderate amounts of alcohol (10% of calories) does not impair weight loss
– 24 or more grams of alcohol (2 or more drinks) may stimulate appetite if consumed before meals, but there does not appear to be any effect on appetite when consumed with a meal

- Quotes
– «…individuals who believe this are making the same mistake that believers in the carbohydrate/insulin hypothesis of obesity make.»
– «…alcohol has a fat-sparing effect similar to that of carbohydrate and will only cause fat gain when consumed in excess of normal energy needs.»
– «The men consumed significantly more food at the buffet after having the alcoholic lager compared to the other conditions.»

* Referanser: James Krieger.

1) Caton, S.J., et al.  Dose-dependent effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake.  Physiol Behav.  81(1):51-58, 2004.
2) Cordain, L., et al.  Influence of moderate daily wine consumption on body weight regulation and metabolism in healthy free-living males.  J Am Coll Nutr.  16(2):134-139, 1997.
3) Cordain, L., et al.  Influence of moderate chronic wine consumption on insulin sensitivity and other correlates of syndrome X in moderately obese women.  Metabolism.  49(11):1473-1478, 2000.
4) Flechtner-Mors, M., et al.  Effects of moderate consumption of white wine on weight loss in overweight and obese subjects.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.  28(11):1420-1426, 2004.
5) Hetherington, M.M., et al.  Stimulation of appetite by alcohol.  Physiol Behav.  74(3):283-289, 2001.
6) Koh-Banerjee, P., et al.  Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16 587 US men.  Am J Clin Nutr.  78(4):719-727, 2003.
7) Mukamal, K.J., et al.  Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men.  N Engl J Med.  348(2):109-118, 2003.
8) Raben, A., et al.  Meals with similar energy densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not appetite and energy intake.  Am J Clin Nutr.  77(1):91-100, 2003.
9) Sonko, B.J., et al.  Effect of alcohol on postmeal fat storage.  Am J Clin Nutr.  59(3):619-625, 1994.
10) Wannamethee, S.G., and A.G. Shaper.  Alcohol, body weight, and weight gain in middle-aged men.  Am J Clin Nutr.  77(5):1312-1317, 2003.

Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy, and Weight Management: Behandling av kreft gjennom kjemoterapi/chemotherapy kan ha en rekke bivirkninger, blant annet økning i kroppsvekt i sammen med en reduksjon i mager masse/muskelmasse. Trening kan hjelpe til med å motvirke disse bivirkningene

«- Article Summary: When women undergo chemotherapy for breast cancer, they can experience weight gain and a loss of lean mass. Research shows that a combination of cardiovascular exercise and resistance training can prevent this from happening. The vast majority of evidence indicates that exercise is safe for patients undergoing chemotherapy.

- Quotes:
– «Along with the increase in body fat is a decrease in lean mass of 1-4 pounds; this decrease is attributed to the toxic effects of chemotherapy agents on muscle tissue.»
– «The main reason for chemotherapy-induced weight gain is a decrease in physical activity.»
– «The exercise group experienced superior improvements in both body fat percentage and lean body mass.»
– » most evidence indicates that weight training does not aggravate lymphedema.».

* Referanser: James Krieger.
1) Battaglini, C., et al.  The effects of an individualized exercise intervention on body composition in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.  Sao Paulo Med J.  125(1):22-28, 2007.
2) Cheema, B., et al.  Progressive resistance training in breast cancer: a systematic review of clinical trials.  Breast Cancer Res Treat.  109(1):9-26, 2008.
3) Costa, L.J., et al.  Weight changes during chemotherapy for breast cancer.  Sao Paulo Med J.  120(4):113-117, 2002.
4) Courneya, K.S., et al.  Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.  J Clin Oncol.  25(28):4396-4404, 2007.
5) Demark-Wahnefried, W., et al.  Why women gain weight with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.  J Clin Oncol.  11(7):1418-1429, 1993.
6) Demark-Wahnefried, W., et al.  Preventing sarcopenic obesity among breast cancer patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy: results of a feasibility study.  Clin Exerc Physiol.  4(1):44-49, 2002.
7) Goodwin, P.J.  Weight gain in early-stage breast cancer:   where do we go from here?  J Clin Oncol.  19(9):2367-2369, 2001.
8) Kirshbaum, M.N.  A review of the benefits of whole body exercise during and after treatment for breast cancer.  J Clin Nurs.  16(1):104-121, 2007.
9) Kumar, N., et al.  Fatigue, weight gain, lethargy and amenorrhea in breast cancer patients on chemotherapy: is subclinical hypothyroidism the culprit?  Breast Cancer Res Treat.  83(2):149-159, 2004.
10) Markes, M., et al.  Exercise for women receiving adjuvant therapy for breast cancer.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  2006 Oct 18;(4):CD005001.
11) Saquib, N., et al.  Weight gain and recovery of pre-cancer weight after breast cancer treatments: evidence from the women’s healthy eating and living (WHEL) study.  Breast Cancer Res Treat.  105(2):177-186, 2007.
12) Schwartz, A.L.  Exercise and weight gain in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.  Cancer Pract.  8(5):231-237, 2000.
13) Visovsky, C.  Muscle strength, body composition, and physical activity in women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer.  Integr Cancer Ther.  5(3):183-191, 2006.
14) Winningham, M.L., et al.  Effect of aerobic exercise on body weight and composition in patients with breast cancer on adjuvant chemotherapy.  Oncol Nurs Forum.  16(5):683-689, 1989.

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