AARR Juli utgave; omega-6 inntak, mm. -> Trening & Kosthold; Verdt å lese, Utgave 75

Utgave 75 – I denne utgaven:
AARR Editor’s Cut: A closer look at the controversy surrounding omega-6 fatty acid intake (av Alan Aragon)
–  Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial.
– Similarity in Adaptations to High-Resistance Circuit vs. Traditional Strength Training in Resistance-Trained Men.
–  Effects of whole-body vibration and resistance training on knee extensors muscular performance.
– Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance.
– Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women.

Ukas verdt å lese utgave er mine notater fra Alan Aragon sin publikasjon Alan Aragon’s Research Review for juli 2011. Jeg vil sterkt anbefale alle med interesse innenfor ernæring og trening, og ikke minst alle som arbeider innen relevante bransjer, å abonnere på AARR!

Ukas sitat:
«If you think you’re too small to have an impact, try going to bed with a mosquito in the room.»
– Anita Roddick

AARR Editor’s Cut: A closer look at the controversy surrounding omega-6 fatty acid intake:

«Increasing the intake omega-3 PUFA (especially from marine sources) is a good general recommendation, especially when addressing the typical Western diet. However, indiscriminately minimizing or avoiding omega-6-rich foods for the aim of improving the ratio can be counterproductive for the goal of achieving a healthy die

– Pischon et al. (10, 11) fant at omega-6 (n-6) inntak ikke hindret de anti-innflamatoriske effektene til omega-3 (n-3), omega-3 alene, spesielt eicosapentaenoic (EPA) og docosahexaenoic (DHA) (notater: Fiskeolje), ser ut til å være mest betydninsfullt.
– Det er mange matvarer rikeomega-6 som er vist å ha en rekke helsefordeler (12-13)
– Omega-3 fra havet ser ut til å være best, men vegetabilske kilder kan være et alternativ, en studie (17) fant et en dobbel dose med omega-3 fra linfrøolje gjorde det like godt som omega-3 fra fiskeolje.
(notater: Omega-6/e-6/PUFA/linoleic acid, omega-3/n-3Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA).)
* Referanser: Alan Aragon –
1. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids, 2005. [IOM] [Huge Fulltext]
2. Harris WS, et al. Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation. 2009 Feb 17;119(6):902-7. Epub 2009 Jan 26. [Medline]
3. Tsimikas S, et al. LDL isolated from Greek subjects on a typical diet or from American subjects on an oleate- supplemented diet induces less monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion when exposed to oxidative stress. Arterioscler Thromb V asc Biol. 1999 Jan;19(1):122-30. [Medline]
4. Calder PC. The American Heart Association advisory on n- 6 fatty acids: evidence based or biased evidence? Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec;104(11):1575-6. [Medline]
5. Ramsden CE, et al. n-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec;104(11):1586-600. [Medline]
6. Turpeinen O, et al. Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease: the Finnish Mental Hospital Study. Int J Epidemiol. 1979 Jun;8(2):99-118. [Medline]
7. Simopolous AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Dec;21(6):495- 505. [Medline]
8. Cordain L, et al. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54. [Medline]
9. Deckelbaum RJ. n-6 and n-3 Fatty acids and atherosclerosis: ratios or amounts? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010 Dec;30(12):2325-6. [Medline]
10. Pischon T, et al. Habitual dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in relation to inflammatory markers among US men and women. Circulation. 2003 Jul 15;108(2):155-60. Epub 2003 Jun 23. [Medline]
11. Harris WS, et al. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio and cardiovascular disease risk: uses and abuses. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2006 Nov;8(6):453-9. [Medline]
12. Rajaram S, Effect of almond-enriched high- monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomised, controlled, crossover study. Br J Nutr. 2010 Mar;103(6):907-12. Epub 2009 Oct 29. [Medline]
13. Damasceno NR, et al. Crossover study of diets enriched with virgin olive oil, walnuts or almonds. Effects on lipids and other cardiovascular risk markers. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jun;21 Suppl 1:S14-20. Epub 2011 Mar 21. [Medline]
14. Smit LA, et al. A High Intake of trans Fatty Acids Has Little Effect on Markers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Humans. J Nutr. 2011 Sep;141(9):1673-8. Epub 2011 Jul 13. [Medline]
15. Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega- 3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Feb 1;23(2):e20-30. [Medline]
16. Wilkinson P, et al. Influence of alpha-linolenic acid and fish-oil on markers of cardiovascular risk in subjects with an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. Atherosclerosis. 2005 Jul;181(1):115-24. [Medline]
17. Barceló-Coblijn G, et al. Flaxseed oil and fish-oil capsule consumption alters human red blood cell n-3 fatty acid composition: a multiple-dosing trial comparing 2 sources of n-3 fatty acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):801-9. [Medline]

 

En Studie Fra Juli 2011 sammenlignet en diett med matvarer med naturlig sukrose og en diett med ‘diet’ produkter søtet med kunstige søtningsmidler/kusntig søtstoff. En rekke helsemarkører vat betydelig dårligere i sukrose-gruppen etter 10 uker, men deres kaloriinntak var også 32 % høyere, og mens søtstoff-gruppen mistet 1,5 kg,økte sukrose-gruppen med 1,4 kg – dette kan sannsynligvis forklare de forskjellige resultatene. (notat: Kunstig søtstoff vs. sukker)

* Referanser: Alan Aragon –
Raben A, Møller BK, Flint A, Vasilaris TH, Christina Møller A, Juul Holst J, Astrup A. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial. Food Nutr Res. 2011;55. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5961. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

En studie fra juni 2011 sammenlignet tung sirkeltrening med tung tradisjonell styrketrening i allerede styrketrenede menn, og fant at begge protokollene ga rimelig lignende resultater etter 8 uker. Sirkelprotokollen tok 55-78 min, og den tradisjonelle tok 105-125 min. Det bør også nevnes at sirkel-gruppen ikke gjorde det noe bedre enn den tradisjonelle gruppen i løpetestene, noe som indikerer god forbedring i kondisjon selv med vanlig styrketrening med lange (3-min) pauser vs. 35 sek. (treningstempo, hvile mellom sett, hviletid.)

* Referanser: Alan Aragon –
Alcaraz PE, Perez-Gomez J, Chavarrias M, Blazevich AJ. Similarity in Adaptations to High-Resistance Circuit vs. Traditional Strength Training in Resistance-Trained Men. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):2519-27. Pubmed.

En studie fra august 2011 undersøkte effekten av fullkropps vibrasjonstrening/whole-body vibration training på muskulær ytelse og kroppskomposisjon. De fant noe positive resultater i form at økt fettreduksjon i vibrasjonsgruppen, men fettklyper er ikke nøyaktige nok til å utelukke målingsfeil. Det er også verdt å nevne at sikkerheten til vibrasjonstrening ikke er godt forsker på, og potensielle bivirkninger skal ikke utelukkes.

* Referanser: Alan Aragon -
Artero EG, Espada-Fuentes JC, Argüelles-Cienfuegos J, Román A, Gómez-López PJ, Gutiérrez A. Effects of whole-body vibration and resistance training on knee extensors muscular performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Aug 2. [Epub ahead of print]. Pubmed.

En Studie Fra Juli 2011 undersøkte effekten av betain/betaine supplementering, kreatin og en kombinasjon, og fant i motsetning til enkelte andre studier ingen effekt fra betain, men bekreftet kreatin sin effekt. Samlet er forskningen på betain tvetydig og ikke veldig spennende (1-3). Betain’s kliniske effekter er også forsket på, og mens det kan redusere en risikofaktor for hjerte/kar sykdommer (senke homocystein/homocysteine nivåer) (4), så kan det øke andre risikofaktorer (øke LDL-kolesterol og triacylglycerol/triglyceride/triglyserid/triasylglyserol) (5).

* Referanser: Alan Aragon –
Del Favero S, Roschel H, Artioli G, Ugrinowitsch C, Tricoli V, Costa A, Barroso R, Negrelli AL, Otaduy MC, da Costa Leite C, Lancha-Junior AH, Gualano B. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance. Amino Acids. 2011 Jul 9. [Epub ahead of print]. Pubmed.

1) Hoffman JR, et al. Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 27;6:7. [Medline]
2) Lee EC, et al. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jul 19;7:27. [Medline]
3) Hoffman JR, et al. Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):2235-41. [Medline]
4) Schwab U, et al. Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1):34-8. [Medline]
5) Olthof MR, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo- controlled studies in healthy humans. PLoS Med. 2005 May;2(5):e135. Epub 2005 May 31. [Medline]

AARR Less Recent Gem: En studie fra november 2010 sammenlignet en rekke forskjellige makronærings sammensetninger/dietter i kombinasjon med trening, og fant lignende resultater i alle gruppene som reduserte kaloriene og trente. En liten, merkbar forskjell er dog at lavkarbo/moderat-protein gruppen (50 % prot, 20 % karb, 30 % fett) var den eneste hypokaloriske gruppen som opprettholdt mager masse.

* Referanser: Alan Aragon –
Kerksick CM, Wismann-Bunn J, Fogt D, Thomas AR, Taylor L, Campbell BI, Wilborn CD, Harvey T, Roberts MD, La Bounty P, Galbreath M, Marcello B, Rasmussen CJ, Kreider RB. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women. Nutr J. 2010 Nov 22;9:59. Pubmed.

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