Utgave 72 – I denne utgaven:
– Same ‘Ol, Same ‘Ol (av James Krieger)
– The Carbohydrate Hypothesis of Obesity: a Critical Examination (av Stephan Guyenet)
– The 6 Biggest Dick Moves in the History of Science
Read more (av Cole Gamble, cracked.com)
– Why the US Sucks at Olympic Lifting (av Lyle McDonald)
– How Muslims can win Olympic gold during Ramadan (av Linda Geddes, newscientist.com)
– Does Marijuana Make You Stupid? (av Jonah Lehrer, Wired.com)
– The Utility of the Glycemic Index: The Final Nail? (av James Krieger)
«Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen.»
– Albert Einstein
Same ‘Ol, Same ‘Ol: En vanlig kostholdsanbefaling er å spise en rekke forskjellige matvarer – et variert kosthold, men forskning viser at et mer ensidig kosthold med mindre variasjon kan føre til ‘habituation’ – som kan føre til at du spiser mindre. Med andre ord kan et for variert kosthold være negativt om vektkontroll eller vektnedgang er målet. Les hele artikkelen her (krever abonnement).
«Article Summary: A recent study showed that repeatedly eating the same food on a daily basis led to habituation and decreased calorie intake. This did not occur when the food was consumed on a weekly basis.
Points of Interest:
– Women consumed macaroni and cheese on a daily basis or a weekly basis.
– Consumption on a weekly basis had little effect on calorie intake, but consumption on a daily basis led to a decrease in calorie intake from the macaroni and cheese as the study progressed.
– «We are all familiar with the phenomenon where, the more often you are exposed to a certain stimulus, the less you respond to it.»
– «This might call into question the advice that we should “eat a variety of foods.”»
– «For many people, it will mean finding a happy medium between variety, and keeping with mostly food choices that help you maintain a low calorie intake.»
The take-home message is that habituation can lead to decreased calorie intake, and that too much variety could result in eating more. However, monotonous diets could be hard to stick with in the long run, so a moderate approach is probably prudent, along with experimentation to find what is the optimal level of food variety for you.»
* Referanser: James Krieger.
1) Epstein, L.H., et al. Long-term habituation to food in obese and nonobese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 94:371-376, 2011. Pubmed.
2) O’Donohue, W., and J.J. Plaud. The long-term habituation of sexual arousal in the human male. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 22(2):87-96, 1991.
3) Ornitz, E.M, and D. Guthrie. Long-term habituation and sensitization of the acoustic startle response in the normal adult human. Psychophysiology. 26(2):166-173, 1989.
4) Raynor, H.A., and L.H. Epstein. Dietary variety, energy regulation, and obesity. Psychol Bull. 127(3):325-341, 2001.
The Carbohydrate Hypothesis of Obesity: a Critical Examination: En flott artikkel av Stephan Guyenet om hypotesen om av karbohydrater er hovedårsaken bak ‘epedemien’ med overvekt.
«Carbohydrate consumption per se is not behind the obesity epidemic. However, once overweight or obesity is established, carbohydrate restriction can aid fat loss in some people.»
The 6 Biggest Dick Moves in the History of Science
Read more: Forskere er ikke alltid like omtenksomme, her har cracked.com samlet 6 av de mest forferdelige forskningsstudiene som er blitt gjort.
Why the US Sucks at Olympic Lifting: Fortsettelsen i serien nevnt i utgave 70:
– Part 8: Kina/China, systemet for å bringe framm løftere mm.
– Part 9:
– Part 10: USA – Amerikanere; bryr seg ikke om andre land. Det er oss, og ‘alle andre’.
– Part 11: USA, Amerikanske idretter; basketball, amerikansk fotball, baseball, golf, fotball/soccer mm.
– Part 12: Konklusjon om USA..
– Part 13: «The Beginning of Human Civilization Brought to You by Kelloggs Corn Flakes» – korn – utviklingen av landbruk,
How Muslims can win Olympic gold during Ramadan: En flott artikkel om hvordan ramadan ikke nødvendigvis må være et stort hinder for ytelse, og at det er dehydrering – og ikke mangel på mat, som er det største problemet.
«»If you’re running 100 metres or weightlifting, what you eat in the few hours beforehand will have no impact on performance,» says Ronald Maughan of Loughborough University, UK, who chaired the IOC working group. However, he adds that in events that last for more than about 30 minutes, or that take place late in the day, performance may suffer.»
Does Marijuana Make You Stupid? En flott artikkel om marihuana hos Wired.com.
– «… Does abuse equal addiction? Probably not, since marijuana is not addictive like other Schedule I drugs. Rats don’t self-administer the compound in a lab, it’s virtually impossible to fatally overdose on the drug, and the physiological effects of marijuana withdrawal, if they occur, are far milder than those experienced by chronic amphetamine, alcohol, nicotine or opiate users. Put another way, if “abuse” means “addiction” then cigarettes should be Schedule I, not marijuana….»
– «And this returns us to marijuana: Putting people in a positive mood roughly doubled their accuracy at the task. All of a sudden, they were twice as good at identifying problems with possible solutions. This suggests that anything that makes us happier, reducing vigilance and anxiety, might also make us more creative. We can detect more remote associations, of course, but we also know which associations are worth pursuing, which is probably even more important. It doesn’t matter if it’s pot, chocolate or a stand-up comic — those substances or experiences that put a smile on our face can also increase the powers of the imagination, at least when solving particular creative problems.»
– «So here’s the very un-D.A.R.E. takeaway: Heavy marijuana use doesn’t seem to cause any sort of lasting brain damage. All the negative side-effects are relatively temporary. (But those side-effects are real.) Furthermore, the sort of anxiolytic giddiness triggered by THC comes with its own unexpected benefits, which is probably why humans have been self-medicating with cannabis for thousands of years.»
The Utility of the Glycemic Index: The Final Nail? En flott artikkel om Glykemisk Indeks (GI), og hvorfor det har veldig limitert betydelighet. Les hele artikkelen her (krever abonnement).
«Article Summary: A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that a common formula used to estimate the glycemic index (GI) of a mixed meal was not reliable, and significantly overestimated the GI by 22-50%.
– «…combining foods of different GI’s, and/or adding in protein and fat, can change the GI.»
– «…the potato meal contained a high glycemic food, yet had a low GI when consumed as a meal.»
– «…even small amounts of protein and fat can dramatically alter the GI of a food, and that individual food GIs are worthless when trying to determine the GI of a mixed meal.»
– «The calculation of GI of a person’s diet is simply too unreliable.»
– «…any research that has tried to relate GI to any marker of health, including body weight and appetite, should be called into question.»
The bottom line is that GI is very limited in its usefulness. It can have some utility when you are looking to get a rapid rise in blood sugar after a workout to enhance glycogen replenishment in your muscles, or if you have diabetes and are consuming an individual food and need to watch your blood sugar. But when it comes to mixed meals or an overall diet, the glycemic index should go the way of the dodo.»
* Referanser: James Krieger.
1) Dodd, H., et al. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 10 [Epub ahead of print]. Pubmed.
2) Atkinson, F.S., et al. International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care. October 3, 2008.
3) Hollenbeck, C.B., et al. Glycemic effects of carbohydrates: a different perspective. Diabetes Care. 9(6):641-647, 1986.
4) Wolever, T.M., and D.J. Jenkins. The use of the glycemic index in predicting the blood glucose response to mixed meals. Am J Clin Nutr. 43(1):167-172, 1986.
5) Wolever, T.M., et al. Prediction of the relative blood glucose response of mixed meals using the white bread glycemic index. Diabetes Care. 8:418-428, 1985