Økologisk mat: Den sanne historien!, mm. -> Trening & Kosthold; Verdt å lese, Utgave 43

Utgave 43 – I denne utgaven:
– Økologisk mat: Den sanne historien! (av Jamie Hale)
- Eksplosivitet er viktig! (av Christian Thibaudeau)
– Det ligger i tunga! (av Lyle McDonald)
– Artificial Sweeteners…an Undeserved Bad Reputation: Part 1, Part 2 (av James Krieger)
– Lav-kalori vs. vanlig måltid (av James Krieger)
- Staggered Target Enhanced Feedback (STEF) (av Christian Thibaudeau)
– 5 Tips for skuldertrening (av
Christian Thibaudeau)

Ukas sitat:

«Many of life’s failures are men who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up.»
- Thomas A. Edison

Økologisk mat: Den sanne historien! Jamie Hale har en flott og godt referert artikkel om økologisk/organisk mat.

Kort oppsummert: Økologisk mat er ikke alltid bedre enn konvensjonell mat. Det er potensiele fordeler og ulemper med begge, og om en er bedre enn den andre er per dags dato usikkert

Christian Thibaudeau

Eksplosivitet er viktig! En flott artikkel fra Christian Thibaudeau om hvordan eksplosivitet er en viktig del av jakten på økt styrke og økt muskelmasse.

Det ligger i tunga! ;)

Artificial Sweeteners…an Undeserved Bad Reputation: Part 1, Part 2: James Krieger har startet en flott ny artikkelserie om kunstige søtningsmidler. Her tar han for seg Neotam og Acesulfam K.

Mine notater fra artiklene:

- Inntaket av forskjellige kunstige søtstoffer er langt under Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) i de fleste land.

- Toksikologi Testing/Toxicology Testing: Framgansmåten: Se artikkelen for detaljer;

– «Acute toxicity tests (single dose).

– Subacute/subchronic toxicity tests (performed over 28-90 days).

– Mutagenicity/clastogenicity.

– Chronic toxicity (long-term administration in the diet, usually 6 months to 2 years).

– Carcinogenicity (i.e., does long-term administration of the maximum tolerated dose cause cancer?).

– Reproductive toxicity.

– Metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies.»

- Neotam/Neotame: Veldig likt Aspartam, men båndet mellom fenylalanin/phenylalanine og asparaginsyre/aspartic acid er mye sterkere enn i aspartam, noe som gjør det mer passende til bruk i bakevarer siden den ikke bryter ned like lett ved høye temperaturer. 40 ganger søtere enn aspartam, og 7-13 000 ganger søtere enn sukrose. ADI er 18 mg/dagen – JECFA 2 mg/kg/kroppsvekt. «While you do not find neotame nearly as frequently as aspartame in food products, the research is quite clear that neotame is safe when consumed at amounts below the ADI.»

- Acesulfam Kalium (Acesulfam K)/Acesulfame Potassium (Acesulfame K) (del 2): Ace-K er 200 ganger søtere enn sukrose, godkjent for bruk i ca 90 land – i USA siden 1988 i tørr mat, og siden 1998 for brus, og som generelt søtstoff siden 2003.

«Article Summary: This article reviews the safety data on acesulfame potassium (ace-K), an artificial sweetener. Although there are some questions about some of the cancer studies, the vast majority of data indicate that ace-K is safe for consumption at amounts below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). There is some evidence that small children may approach the ADI. As with many things, moderation is a prudent approach.

Points of Interest:

— Typical intakes of ace-K are well below the ADI in teenagers and adults.

— Intakes may approach the ADI in small children.

— Your body rapidly absorbs and immediately excretes ace-K, so exposure is minimal.

— 2-year toxicology studies in dogs and rats show no toxic effects, even at extremely high doses.

— Most studies indicate no genotoxic effects.

— Most cancer studies show no cancer-causing effects, although there are questions as to the quality of these studies.

Quotes:

— » In a study out of Italy, intake does not exceed the ADI even under the worst case scenario where all regular food products were replaced with a sugar-free version sweetened with ace-K.»

— «There was no evidence of cancer-causing effects, despite the fact that these animals were more susceptible to cancer.»»

(Notater: Søtstoff, kunstig søtning, kunstig søtningsmiddel.)

* Referanser: James Krieger: Del 1Del 2 -

Del 1:

1) Arcella, D., et al.  Dietary estimated intake of intense sweeteners by Italian teenagers.  Present levels and projections derived from the INRAN-RM-2001 food survey.  Food Chem Toxicol. 42(4):677-685, 2004.

2) Baturina, V.A., et al.  Effect of food additive Neotame (N-[N-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-L-alpha-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl) on glucose level in blood of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.  Vopr Pitan. 73(6):18-20, 2004.

3) Chung, M.S., et al.  Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.  Food Addit Contam. 22(11):1087-1097, 2005.

4) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.  World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 922:1-176, 2004.

5) Garnier-Sagne, I., et al.  Calculation of the intake of three intense sweeteners in young insulin-dependent diabetics.  Food Chem Toxicol. 39(7):745-749, 2001.

6) Ilback, N.G., et al.  Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.  Food Addit Contam. 20(2):99-114, 2003.

7) Leth, T., et al.  Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark.  Food Addit Contam. 24(3):227-235, 2007.

8) Renwick, A.G.  The intake of intense sweeteners – an update review.  Food Addit Contam.  23(4):327-338, 2006.

Del 2:

9) Arcella, D., et al.  Dietary estimated intake of intense sweeteners by Italian teenagers.  Present levels and projections derived from the INRAN-RM-2001 food survey.  Food Chem Toxicol. 42(4):677-685, 2004.

10) Bandyopadhyay, A., et al.  Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners:  aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin.  Drug Chem Toxicol. 31(4):447-457, 2008.

11) European Commission Scientific Committee on Food.  Opinion: Re-evaluation of acesulfame K with reference to the previous SCF opinion of 1991.  March 13, 2000.

12) Husoy, T., et al.  Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners – a risk benefit assessment.  Food Chem Toxicol. 46(9):3099-3105, 2008.

13) JEFCA.  Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.  World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 901:i-viii, x, 1-107, 2001.

14) Jeffrey, A.M., and G.M. Williams.  Lack of DNA-damaging activity of five non-nutritive sweeteners in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay.  Food Chem Toxicol. 38(4):335-338, 2000.

15) Karstadt, M.L.  Testing needed for acesulfame potassium, an artificial sweetener.  Environ Health Perspect. 114(9):A516, 2006.

16) Karstadt, M.L.  Inadequate toxicity tests of food additive acesulfame.  Int J Occup Environ Health. 16(1):89-96, 2010.

17) Kreiling, R., and D.G. Mayer.  Acetoacetamide-N-Sulfonic acid: an overview of pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and toxicologic research.  In: Acesulfame K.  D.G. Mayer and F.H. Kemper, eds.  pg. 181-195, 1991.

18) Leth, T., et al.  Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.  Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 25(6):662-668, 2008.

19) Lino, C.M., et al.  Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.  Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess.  25(11):1291-1296, 2008.

20) Mukherjee, A., and J. Chakrabarti.  In vivo cytogenetic studies on mice exposed to acesulfame-K–a non-nutritive sweetener.  Food Chem Toxicol. 35(12):1177-1199, 1997.

21) Mukhopadhyay, M., et al.  In vivo cytogenetic studies on blends of aspartame and acesulfame-K.  Food Chem Toxicol. 38(1):75-77, 2000.

22) National Toxicology Program.  NTP toxicology studies of acesulfame potassium (CAS No. 55589-62-3) in genetically modified (FVB Tg.AC Hemizygous) mice and carcinogenicity studies of acesulfame potassium in genetically modified [B6.129-Trp53(tm1Brd) (N5) Haploinsufficient] mice (feed studies) mice.  Natl Toxicol Program Genet Modif Model Rep. Oct(2):1-113, 2005.

23) Renwick, A.G.  The intake of intense sweeteners – an update review.  Food Addit Contam. 23(4):327-338, 2006.

24) Sasaki, Y.F., et al.  The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives.  Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis.  519(1-2):103-119, 2002.

25) Weihrauch, M.R., and V. Diehl.  Artificial sweeteners — do they bear a carcinogenic risk?  Ann Oncol. 15(10):1460-1465, 2004.

Lav-kalori vs. vanlig måltid: En interessant artikkel fra James Krieger, som ser på en studie som fant at  lav-kalori spaghetti og vanlig spaghetti var like mettende, men lav-kalori varianten ble mindre og mindre ‘likt’ etterhvert. Les hele artikkelen her.

Studien: O’Sullivan, H.L., et al.  Effects of repeated exposure on liking for a reduced-energy-dense food.  Am J Clin Nutr. 91(6):1584-1589, 2010. Pubmed.

Staggered Target Enhanced Feedback (STEF): En interessant artikkel fra Christian Thibaudeau, om en treningsmetode fra Stephane Aube. Det går ut på hvordan er ‘pumped’ eller litt ‘sår’/støl muskel fører til at du føler muskelen arbeide bedre under hovedøvelser, og dette kan man dra nytte av ved å lære hvordan man best benytter en gitt muskel for en gitt oppgave. Ikke veldig relevant for mine personlige målsetninger innen vektløfting, men for kroppsbyggere kan dette helt klart være lønnsomt, om teorien holder opp i praksis.

5 Tips for skuldertrening: 5 gode tips for skuldertrening fra Christian Thibaudeau, som forøvrig har gigantiske skuldre selv:
1) Traps er viktig for pressing.

2) En kraftig ‘shrug’ i begynnelsen av overhodet pressing kan være fordelaktig.

3) De eksterne skulder rotatorene/external shoulder rotators er i hovedsak rask-trekning/type 2 muskelfiber/ fast-twitch dominante.

4) Anterior deltoid svarer best til tung og eksplosiv løfting.

5) Pressing øvelser svarer bra til cluster/rest-pause trening.

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